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Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood 2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, Have you been wondering about using CBD for dogs with arthritis? While research is still limited in this area, there are promising signs. As a natural anti-inflammatory, CBD can be used to fight pain, inflmmation, and arthritis in dogs. Here are our picks for CBD oils to treat canine pain.

Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Canine Inflammatory Response: An Ex Vivo Study on LPS Stimulated Whole Blood

2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected] (A.F.P.); [email protected] (R.S.); [email protected] (R.D.); [email protected] (R.F.); [email protected] (D.I.)

Rosalba Siracusa

2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected] (A.F.P.); [email protected] (R.S.); [email protected] (R.D.); [email protected] (R.F.); [email protected] (D.I.)

Ramona D’Amico

2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected] (A.F.P.); [email protected] (R.S.); [email protected] (R.D.); [email protected] (R.F.); [email protected] (D.I.)

Marika Cordaro

3 Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected]

Roberta Fusco

2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected] (A.F.P.); [email protected] (R.S.); [email protected] (R.D.); [email protected] (R.F.); [email protected] (D.I.)

Daniela Impellizzeri

2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected] (A.F.P.); [email protected] (R.S.); [email protected] (R.D.); [email protected] (R.F.); [email protected] (D.I.)

Rosanna Di Paola

2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected] (A.F.P.); [email protected] (R.S.); [email protected] (R.D.); [email protected] (R.F.); [email protected] (D.I.)

Salvatore Cuzzocrea

2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected] (A.F.P.); [email protected] (R.S.); [email protected] (R.D.); [email protected] (R.F.); [email protected] (D.I.)

4 Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA

Rosalia Crupi

Claudia Dina Interlandi

2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected] (A.F.P.); [email protected] (R.S.); [email protected] (R.D.); [email protected] (R.F.); [email protected] (D.I.)

3 Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy; [email protected]

4 Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA

Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Associated Data

All data obtained from this study are included into the manuscript.

Abstract

The use of cannabidiol (CBD) for animal species is an area of growing interest, for example for its anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating properties, even though all of its biological effects are still not fully understood, especially in veterinary medicine. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating properties of CBD for the first time directly in canine inflammatory response. We used an ex vivo model of LPS-stimulated whole dog blood. We stimulated the whole blood from healthy dogs with LPS 100 ng/mL for 24 h in the presence or not of CBD 50 and 100 μg/mL. We observed a reduction in IL-6 and TNF-α production from the group treated with CBD, but non-altered IL-10 levels. Moreover, we also observed from the CBD-treated group a reduction in Nf-κB and COX-2 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating properties of CBD directly in dogs’ immune cells, using a canine ex vivo inflammatory model. The results obtained from these studies encourage further studies to better understand the possible therapeutic role of CBD in veterinary medicine.

1. Introduction

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the major non-psychoactive plant (Cannabis sp.)-derived cannabinoids that has structural similarity to the primary psychotropic congener in cannabis, D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The use of cannabis for animal species is an area of growing interest, even if to date there are few studies that have characterized the biological effect of CBD in different animal species [1]. CBD is known to act as an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulant agent, and the effects of CBD on immune responses can involve both innate or adaptive responses [2]. Although there are only a few studies on the therapeutic use of CBD in dogs, the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of CBD has been characterized [3,4]. Recently, a pilot study conducted on dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis described the safety and efficacy of CBD for symptom relief of canine osteoarthritis-associated pain [5]. However, the immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory and other biological activities of CBD have been characterized much more often in human medicine than in veterinary medicine [6,7,8]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBD directly in canine inflammatory response, and to achieve this aim, we used an ex vivo model where whole blood from healthy dogs was stimulated with LPS (100 ng/mL). Ex vivo whole blood stimulation is a reliable method to study the effect of immunomodulatory agents [9,10], as this method replicates the natural environment of immune cell response, preventing changes in phenotype that may occur with the isolation of the cells and minimize the volume of starting blood needed [11]. Thus, this model allowed us to characterize the effect of CBD on canine inflammatory response. As previously seen in other species, CBD is known to modulate cytokines’ secretion from immune cells and thus modulate several pathways in immune function [12,13]. We focused on the levels of the major regulating cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. IL-6 and TNF-α are the major pro-inflammatory cytokines driving inflammatory response and immune cell activation, and IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and immune-regulating mediator [14]. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of CBD on Nf-κB and COX-2 expression. Nf-κB is a key regulator of inflammatory response by regulating the expression of several pro-inflammatory mediators including COX-2. The finding of this study support the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulant effect of CBD in dogs’ immune cells, even though future studies are needed to better understand the biological activity of this compound in different species.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Canine Donors and Blood Collection

Whole blood samples were obtained from 6 healthy dogs (working lines of German Shepherd, aged between 2 and 10 years, 3 male and 3 female). An aliquot of heparinized blood was kindly donated with the owner’s informed consent from dogs undergoing routine blood tests. The dogs were healthy, based on clinical examinations performed by veterinarians and the results of complete blood cell counts. Blood samples were processed within 1 h of collection.

2.2. Whole Blood Culture and Stimulation

Whole blood culture and stimulation were performed as previously described [15]. Briefly, blood from each subject was diluted 1:2 with RPMI 1640 (Gibco, Life Technologies Corporation, Waltham, MA, USA) culture medium containing 200 U/mL penicillin and 200 mg/mL streptomycin. An aliquot of 500 μL of diluted whole blood from each subject was incubated (37 °C, 5% CO2) for 24 h with or without CBD (kanarescue 5% © ). CBD, in the form of kanarescue compaun, was dissolved in DMSO (final concentration of 0.1% in assay media for all assays) and added directly to the media at the concentrations indicated as follow in duplicate:

After incubation, samples were centrifuged at 2000× g for 5 min at room temperature and processed as homogenous samples for each condition. In particular, the supernatants were harvested and stored immediately at −20 °C until further use, and cell pellets stored at −20 °C were immediately resuspended in appropriate lysis buffer and processed for rt-PCR and Western blot analysis as described above.

2.3. ELISA Assays

Cytokine evaluation was performed in whole blood culture supernatant using a canine-specific ELISA kit according to the manufacturer’s protocols [16], for IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α (Quantikine, R&D system). Briefly, 100 μL of the appropriate sample was added into the appropriate well of a 96-well plate and incubated at room temperature for 2 h. After washing, 200 µL of conjugate ab was added to each well and incubated at room temperature for 2 h. After washing, 120 μL of the substrate solution was added for 30′, and then 120 μL of the stop solution was added to each well. Finally, the plates were read at 450 nm. The lower limit detections were, respectively, 31.3, 15.6, and 7.8 pg/mL.

2.4. rt-PCR

Total RNA was isolated from cell pellets using the commercially available column kit RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s protocols. Briefly, samples were lysed, and subsequently ethanol was added to obtain ideal binding conditions. The lysates obtained were loaded into the RNeasy silica membrane. RNA bound into the column and all contaminants were washed out. Pure, concentrated RNA was eluted in 50 μL of water. RNA was quantified with a spectrophotometer (NanoDrop, NanoReady Life Real, Hangzhou, China). Subsequently, first-strand cDNA synthesis was performed using RevertAid H Minus First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Thermo Scientific™, Rodano (MI), Italy) according to the manufacturer’s protocols and recommendations. The relative abundance of COX-2 was assessed by RT-PCR using QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR Kits (Qiagen, Milano, Italy) and QuantiTect primer Cf_PTGS2_1_SG (Qiagen) on a CFX-96 Touch Deep Well Real-Time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad, Segrate (MI), Italy) using 1 μL of total cDNA. PCR conditions were as follows: initial denaturation at 95 °C for 15 min, followed by 45 cycles of amplification at 94 °C for 15 s and 72 °C for 30 s. Final extension at 60 °C for 60 s and holding at 4 °C were then performed. To provide precise quantification of the initial target in each PCR reaction, the amplification plot was examined, and the point of the early log phase of product accumulation was defined by assigning a fluorescence threshold above the background, defined as the threshold cycle number or Cq. Differences in the threshold cycle number were used to quantify the relative amount of the PCR targets contained within each tube with CFX Maestro Software (Bio-Rad). The relative expression of different amplicons was calculated by the delta-delta Cq (ΔΔCq) method and converted to the relative expression ratio (2−ΔΔCq) for statistical analysis. All canine data were normalized to the endogenous reference genes β-actin and GAPDH combined, respectively, Cf_ACTB1_1_SG and Cf_GAPDH_1_SG (QuantiTect primers, Qiagen). For each target gene, besides the biological replicates, three technical replicates were performed. Negative controls using RNA as a template were also included in all runs to test for the possible genomic DNA contamination of the samples.

2.5. Western Blot

Western blot analysis was performed as previously described in our previous studies with minor changes [17,18,19]. Briefly, protein concentrations were determined by the Bio-Rad protein assay method using bovine serum albumin as standard. Samples were heated at 100 °C for 5 min, and equal amounts of protein were separated on SDS-PAGE gel and transferred to PVDF membranes. The membranes were blocked with 1 × phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 5% (w/v) non- fat dried milk for 40 min at room temperature, and then blots were incubated with specific primary antibody Anti-Nf-κB p65 (1:1000, Cell Signalling) or anti-beta actin (1:1000, Abcam) in 1 × PBS, 5% w/v non-fat dried milk, and 0.1% Tween-20, and incubated at 4 °C overnight. After that, blots were incubated with the peroxidase-conjugated bovine anti-mouse IgG secondary antibody or peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (1:2000, Jackson Immuno Research) for 1 h at room temperature. The relative expression of the protein bands was detected with an enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) system (Bio-Rad) and visualized with the Chemi Doc XRS (Bio-Rad, Segrate (MI), Italy). The bands were analyzed by using Image Lab 3.0 software (Bio-Rad, Segrate (MI), Italy) and standardized to the relevant housekeeping protein level. Results are expressed with the relative fold change to the control group.

2.6. Statistical Analysis

Each experiment included three independent replicates. The data resulting from all experiments are expressed as means ± SEM. Statistical differences between groups were compared using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test for multiple comparisons, using GraphPad Prism version 9 (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant [20,21].

3. Results

3.1. Effect of CBD on IL-6 and TNF-α Response in LPS Stimulated Whole Blood

Consistent with previous publications, we used an ex vivo model of inflammation where whole blood was stimulated with a canonical inflammatory stimulus such as LPS (100 ng/mL for 24 h) to induce an inflammatory response. Cytokines are the driving factors for inflammatory and immune response. Thus, we decided to evaluate the secretion of two of the major pro-inflammatory mediators, IL-6 and TNF-α, in the different experimental conditions used in this study. The ELISA test performed in the whole blood culture supernatant for IL-6 and TNF-α showed a significant increase in the secretion of these pro-inflammatory cytokines compared with the LPS-stimulated group, serving as our positive control group. As shown in Figure 1 , when stimulation with LPS was performed in the presence of CBD (50 and 100 μg/mL) we observed a significant reduction in cytokines secretion. We observed a dose dependence effect of CBD; when compared to CBD 50 μg/mL, the dose of CBD 100 μg/mL produced a bigger inhibitory effect on IL-6 and TNF-α release in whole blood supernatant.

ELISA assay for IL-6 and TNF-α whole blood culture supernatant 24 h after LPS 100 ng/mL stimulation. Data are presented as means ± SEM for each group. °°° p < 0.01 vs. control; ** p < 0.01 vs. LPS; *** p < 0.001 vs. LPS.

3.2. Effect of CBD on IL-10 in LPS Stimulated Whole Blood

Next, we evaluated the trend of IL-10 as a major anti-inflammatory cytokine. Furthermore, IL-10 plays a key role in the function regulation of several immune cells. Consistent with previous studies, the whole blood stimulation with LPS induced an increase in the levels of IL-10 compared to the control [15,22]. Interestingly, we found that CBD did not alter the levels of IL-10 ( Figure 2 ); instead, we observed a slight trend in IL-10 levels after the treatment with CBD in a dose-dependent manner. As shown in Figure 2 , we evaluated the TNF-α to IL-10 ratio to highlight a shift in inflammatory phenotype [22]. Our results show a significant increase in the TNF-α to IL-10 ratio induced by LPS, while the CBD produces a significant decrease in the TNF-α to IL-10 ratio in a dose-dependent manner.

ELISA assay for IL-10. Left panel, whole blood culture supernatant 24 h after LPS 100 ng/mL stimulation. Right panel, TNF-α to IL-10 ratio graph calculated based on the results of the ELISA assay. Data are presented as means ± SEM for each group. °°° p < 0.01 vs. control; ** p < 0.01 vs. LPS; *** p < 0.001 vs. LPS.

3.3. Effect of CBD on Nf-κB and COX-2 Induction in LPS Stimulated Whole Blood

We also evaluated the effect of CBD on inflammatory pathways through the evaluation of Nf-κB and COX-2 expression levels. NF-κB activation has significant effects on the regulation of inflammatory response and in the transcriptional regulation of many pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6. As is widely known, the LPS stimuli induced an increase in Nf-κB p-65 activation. Through Western blot analysis, we highlighted the expression of Nf-κB p-65; as shown in Figure 3 , we observed a significantly increase in Nf-κB p-65 expression in the LPS group. According to the results for IL-6 and TNF-α ( Figure 1 ), we observed a reduction in Nf-κB expression for the groups incubated with LPS and CBD (50 and 100 μg/mL) compared to the LPS-only group. Subsequently we evaluated the mRNA and protein levels for COX-2, which is known to be upregulated during inflammation. COX-2 plays a fundamental role in the inflammatory cascade, and thus in acute and chronic inflammation. Additionally, for COX-2, we observed significantly increased levels of both mRNA and protein for the LPS group, while the treatment with CBD (50 and 100 μg/mL) showed significantly lower COX-2 mRNA and protein expression compared to LPS. These results are in accordance with the results observed for Nf-κB and confirm an immune regulatory effect for CBD.

Upper panels, Western blot analysis for Nf-κB expression and relative comparative fold change graph. Lower panel, Western blot and rt-PCR analysis for COX-2 protein and mRNA expression among the different experimental groups. Data are presented as means ± SEM for each group. °°° p < 0.01 vs. control; *** p < 0.001 vs. LPS.

4. Discussion

CBD is the major non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sp.; even though many of its biological effects are not clearly understood, recently, CBD was authorized in some countries for therapeutic purposes for several clinical conditions [3]. To date, only a few studies have assessed the therapeutic efficacy of CBD in dogs. CBD has been seen to be efficacious in reducing pain and joint inflammation signs in dogs with osteoarthritis [23], and in dogs with epilepsy [24]. As synthetized in a review by Della Rocca [3], despite the limited data on the pharmacological effects of CBD in dogs, the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of CBD and those of cannabis derivatives in general have been evaluated. Evidence supports the immunomodulant proprieties of CBD [25,26,27,28], but to date, there are no scientific data on the direct immunomodulatory effect of CBD in dogs. In fact, the biological activities of CBD have been characterized much more often in humans, with more clinical trials, than in other animal species [29,30,31]. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effect of CBD directly in dogs. Thus, we used an ex vivo model of whole dog blood from healthy dogs stimulated with LPS. This is a reliable model to study the effect of immune modulatory agents or immune response [32] in target species, and it has previously been demonstrated that this model is more representative of in vivo cytokine response patterns [33]. LPS as canonical inflammatory stimulus which is able to evoke a pro-inflammatory phenotype of immune cells [34]. Cytokines are responsible for the regulation of immunological and inflammatory processes, and play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid cells. Our experimental protocols consist of the stimulation of healthy dogs’ whole blood with LPS 100 ng/mL in the presence or not of CBD 50 and 100 μg/mL. We started by evaluating the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 in the whole blood culture supernatant through ELISA assays. IL-6 and TNF-α play a key role in the physiological inflammatory response such as during infection, but also in several diseases where elevated levels of these cytokines are associated with a poor clinical outcome. IL-6 regulates both the innate and adaptive immune response [35], is a well-consolidated marker of inflammation, such as systemic inflammation, sepsis, and autoimmune disease [36], and is also a prognostic marker for canine critical care patients with acute internal disease [37]. Consistent with previous studies, we found that LPS stimulation of canine whole blood induces a significant increase in the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α [15]. Our results show that whole dog blood stimulated with LPS and treated with CBD 50 and 100 μg/mL had a significant lower level of IL-6 and TNF-α compared to LPS. These findings are in accordance with previous studies that assessed the immune modulatory effect of CBD in humans [28,38], due to the proprieties of CBD. To better understand the effect of CBD on dog immune cells, we decided to investigate the effect not only on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, but also on IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory and immunoregulating cytokine. Interestingly, our results show that differently from IL-6 and TNF-α, CBD did not alter the levels of IL-10 in response to LPS; this effect of CBD has also been observed in previous studies [39,40]. In particular, we observed a slight trend for the upregulation of IL-10 by CBD—this can partially be explained by the combination of CBD treatment and LPS stimulation [41]. The balance between TNF-α and IL-10 is important for immune homeostasis maintenance; commonly, an increase in TNF-α is counterbalanced by a simultaneous increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which suppresses the production of many activating and regulatory mediators [42,43]. Thus, we also evaluated the TNF-α to IL-10 ratio as a cytokine marker of the balance between key pro- and anti-inflammatory levels [12,18,40]. Our results show that LPS stimulation produces a significant increase in the TNF-α to IL-10 ratio in whole dog blood, while treatment with CBD is able to restore the TNF-α to IL-10 ratio compared to the control groups. To better investigate the effect of CBD during inflammation, we evaluate the expression levels of Nf-κB p-65. NF-κB regulates several events in the innate and adaptive immune response and serves as a key regulator of inflammatory responses.

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NF-κB induces the expression of several pro-inflammatory genes, including those encoding cytokines and chemokines [44]. Our results show that treatment with CBD 50 and 100 μg/ mL reduced Nf-κB p65 expression during stimulation with LPS. COX-2 is a key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid and plays a key role in inflammatory response. Its expressions is known to be upregulated in response to certain stimuli, including growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines [45]. Our results show that stimulation of LPS in healthy whole dog blood induced a significant increase in COX-2 mRNA, while the treatment with CBD 50 and 100 μg/mL reduced the increased COX-2 mRNA induced by LPS. This effect on COX-2 can be explained by the results observed for IL-6, TNF-α and Nf-κB.

5. Limitations of the Study

Due to the novelty of this preliminary study, there are some limitations which should be pointed out. Although some limited studies published previously show that CBD is well-tolerated in different species in vivo, the lack of more accurate studies on the cytotoxic effects of this compound, if present, and in particular on the effects on different cell types means that there is no indication as to whether the doses used in this study could fall within a therapeutic range. A limitation of this study is the limited range of CBD concentrations used, and the limited sample size in terms of the dog breeds used. Furthermore, with regard to the sources and preparation of CBD, they are very different from each other, both in terms of composition and the concentration of CBD, which is often not well titrated. In this study, we refer to CBD as originating from a commercial preparation available for dogs, such as kanarescue 5%.

6. Conclusions

In conclusion, in this study, we provide the first evidence of the immunomodulatory effect of CBD in stimulated whole dog blood. Our results demonstrate that CBD was able to reduce the inflammatory response induced by LPS. In particular, we found that CBD was able to modulate the cytokine production stimulated by LPS and thus reduced the inflammatory response, as confirmed by Nf-κB and COX-2 reduction in the group treated with CBD 50 and 100 μg/mL. Due to the lack of scientific data on the use of CBD in dogs, our results obtained in an ex vivo canine model encourage further studies to better understand the possible therapeutic role of CBD in veterinary medicine.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization and validation R.C. and C.D.I.; Data curation and formal analysis M.C. and D.I.; Investigation and writing—original draft preparation E.G., A.F.P., R.S. and R.F.; Methology and and formal analysis P.L. and R.D.; Supervision and writing—review and editing R.D.P. and S.C. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Informed Consent Statement

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Data Availability Statement

All data obtained from this study are included into the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Footnotes

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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CBD for dogs with arthritis: What does the science actually say?

Have you been wondering about using CBD for dogs with arthritis?

There’s a lot of buzz around using CBD as a treatment for arthritis in dogs. However, it’s important to separate the rumors from real science and anecdotal owner experiences.

Let’s take a look at some of the most common claims surrounding CBD for canine arthritis, and whether there’s evidence to back them up.

First, what exactly is CBD?

CBD is the non-psychoactive extract of the cannabis plant. Once extracted, CBD is often infused into oils, balms, or treats to help deliver the extract to the body.

CBD is short for cannabidiol, which is one of many cannabis compounds called cannabinoids. These compounds are known to have soothing and therapeutic effects. In fact, a majority of CBD products actually contain several cannabinoids, with CBD being the primary ingredient. Other popular cannabinoids include CBC, CBG, and CBN.

CLAIM: CBD can make dogs high – No

In the pet industry, all CBD is extracted from hemp plants, not marijuana. This helps guarantee that CBD products for dogs cannot cause a high. To remain federally legal, the hemp plants themselves must contain less than 0.3% THC, which is the cannabinoid primarily responsible for creating a psychoactive effect when inhaled or eaten.

CLAIM: CBD for dogs is illegal – No

Since amendments to the Federal Farm Bill in 2018, hemp containing less than 0.3% THC (otherwise known as Industrial Hemp), can be legally grown, sold, and possessed. This allows both humans and dogs to safely experience the benefits of hemp-made CBD products.

At a state level, there are a few specific additions or alterations to CBD laws. For example, in Idaho, CBD products must contain 0% THC and not 0.3%. Ask your veterinarian about specific laws in your state that they might be aware of.

CLAIM: CBD can oil cure canine arthritis – NO

First, it’s important to note that there is no cure for arthritis – there are just different treatment options to help manage pain and inflammation and keep dogs active.

The increased popularity of pet CBD has led to an influx of rave reviews and social media posts from owners who have tried CBD with their dogs. Among these, perhaps the most common observation is that taking CBD has helped their pup to improve their mobility and reduce joint pain.

While these reports are highly encouraging, it’s important to remember that they usually describe CBD’s effects on symptoms, not arthritis itself. Some studies have reported beneficial effects lasting for a short while after CBD treatment is stopped (see below).

If you are considering using CBD for your dog, please tell your veterinarian and always inform them about how much and how often your dog takes it, along with all other medications or supplements your dog takes.

CLAIM: CBD is anti-inflammatory – There is some evidence to suggest there are anti-inflammatory benefits.

Indications are that CBD does have an anti-inflammatory effect on many dogs. It’s able to do this by interacting with receptors (called CB1 and CB2 receptors) in a part of dogs’ bodies called the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

The ECS is found in almost all mammals, including humans. Scientists believe the ECS is responsible for maintaining balance inside the body, releasing hormones, and stimulating responses to modulate how organs respond to external stimuli. The ECS is known to modulate pain signals and the activation of inflammation.

Through the CB receptors, CBD affects how the ECS activates pain and inflammatory responses, helping dogs to experience reduced pain and swelling.

CLAIM: CBD can help alleviate common symptoms of canine arthritis – Yes, for some pets

Because the major types of canine arthritis are inflammatory conditions, CBD might be able to help reduce associated pain, swelling, and mobility issues in many dogs.

While studies on CBD’s ability to treat symptoms of arthritis in animals are very limited – and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) is advocating for more well-controlled clinical research and for manufacturers to seek approval from the FDA to assure safety and quality – there are some encouraging signs.

For example, in 2018, a study by Cornell University tested CBD’s effects on dogs with osteoarthritis and found it clearly improved levels of comfort and mobility when compared to a placebo.

In 2020, a similar study found that CBD was associated with reduced joint pain and quality of life in dogs, while a veterinary study published in the journal Pain also found CBD decreases canine pain while increasing mobility.

The bottom line

With so many dogs developing mobility issues, joint pain, and arthritic conditions as they age, the demand for treatments is growing. Managing canine arthritis is best accomplished by taking a multi-pronged approach that includes:

  • Regular pain management, including NSAIDs
  • Regular, low-impact exercise like walking or underwater treadmill use
  • Maintaining an ideal weight and body condition
  • Supplements that include anti-inflammatory properties such as CBD can be a part of a comprehensive treatment plan but they are not intended to be the only or even primary approach to managing arthritis.

While research into CBD benefits in animals is relatively limited, there is starting to be evidence that CBD products can provide arthritis relief by reducing inflammation and pain in dogs with joint issues, resulting in increased mobility.

When considering CBD for their dog, owners should look for pet-specific products made from Industrial Hemp. Always talk to your veterinary team whenever starting any new treatment, supplement, or medication with your dog.

Best CBD Oil for Dogs with Arthritis

Canine arthritis and hip dysplasia are two of the most common problems facing our dogs, causing stiffness, pain, and affecting wellbeing.

The good news is that CBD oil for dogs has been shown in clinical studies to reduce inflammation and symptoms associated with arthritis and joint disease.

2022 Review results:

Winner : Honest Paws

Best value : Simple Wag

Runner-up : CBDistillery Pet

Third-place : Charlotte’s Web

We also like : Innovet Pur CBD

We also like : CBDFx

Honest Paws Mobility Oil received top scores for CBD quality and customer reviews. It’s made from a simple recipe that’s designed to reduce inflammation. Dog owners are raving about this product!

Why trust our reviews?

Our team is made of CBD experts, dog owners, and pet industry specialists. We’re dedicated to all things pet CBD and we take our recommendations seriously.

To guide dog owners through buying CBD products, we use unbiased information from independent labs and real customers.

In our analysis of 38 CBD brands , we looked at hemp farming practices, CBD extraction methods, product recipes, and dog owners’ testimonials.

Is CBD safe for dogs?

Yes! Pet-friendly CBD oils are natural supplements made from non-intoxicating hemp (not marijuana). They don’t cause a high and are used by thousands of pups without side effects.

Pets should never consume cannabis products made for humans, as these may contain large amounts of THC.

How do we rate CBD oils?

We rate CBD oils for dogs with arthritis by extract quality and online customer reviews . We also read product recipes to see if CBD oils have been made with arthritic dogs in mind.

CBD extract quality

The best CBD oils contain whole-plant extracts with a full spectrum of hemp compounds. We analyze batch tests and check farming standards to make sure all our recommended oils contain safe, high-quality CBD.

Customer reviews

Nobody knows a dog better than their owner, so we analyze Google and Facebook reviews to see what real people say about CBD products. We only use independent review sources to minimize the chances of review-tampering.

Product recipe

Dogs with joint issues should consume a low-inflammation diet. CBD oils made with Omega fats and dietary supplements can help with this, so we look for products with arthritis-friendly recipes.

How CBD works for arthritis

Canine arthritis causes inflammation around joints and connective tissues. It’s caused by joint deterioration, genetic factors, or autoimmune conditions, leading to pain and mobility issues.

Studies have shown that CBD can interact with receptors in dogs’ bodies that control the inflammatory response, reducing swelling and associated symptoms.

Jump down to more info on the science of CBD, including recent clinical studies.

2022 Full reviews

1. Best CBD oil for dogs with arthritis
Honest Paws Mobility CBD Oil

Honest Paws Mobility is our expert’s choice for dogs with arthritis and other types of joint inflammation. It contains the highest quality CBD extract of all products in our 2022 review, plus the best customer satisfaction score of any brand.

We like that Honest Paws is a pet-specific CBD brand. They produce dog-friendly recipes with added supplements to target symptoms of canine disorders. The Mobility Oil contains organic turmeric and is available in 4 concentrations.

Brand: Honest Paws
2022 score: 1st place
Made for: Arthritis

Active ingredients : CBD, Turmeric
Concentration : 125 – 1000 mg
Quality testing : Read the lab report

Brand : Honest Paws
2022 score : 1st place
Made for : Arthritis

Active ingredients : CBD, Turmeric
Concentration : 125 – 1000 mg
Quality testing : Read the lab report

Honest Paws’ CBD extract is made from fully organic hemp grown in Colorado. Batch tests confirm it’s a true whole-plant extract, with a full spectrum of soothing cannabis compounds.

In fact, Honest Paws products contain the fullest-spectrum CBD of anyone in the market, with lots of supporting cannabinoids including CBD-A – which has been shown in studies to help reduce inflammation and associated pain.

Read more

Honest Paws infuses their top-quality CBD with an organic MCT oil and organic, US-sourced turmeric, which has been used by naturopaths for years to help reduce inflammation.

Honest Paws Customer Reviews

We use 3rd party reviews from Google & Facebook for an unbiased view of customer satisfaction.

While many pet CBD brands have limited independent reviews, one of the great things about Honest Paws is their widespread popularity , which means there are over 500 online testimonials from real, knowledgeable owners to read through.

With an average rating of 4.9/5.0, Honest Paws beats out the next best CBD brand for customer satisfaction, Charlotte’s Web, with a 4.1/5 rating from over 300 reviews.

I love CBD using products for my animals. This was specifically for my senior dog which has terrible arthritis . I was actually a bit skeptical…but after taking their Mobility CBD for about 4 days he was way happier and wanted to get up and play…Highly recommend. ” – (Emmilee Ringelberg, Honest Paws customer)

Honest Paws sizes & dosage instructions

The mobility oil comes in 4 different strengths:

  • 125mg (4mg/dropper) – for dogs below 25lbs
  • 250mg (8mg/dropper) – for dogs below 50lbs
  • 500mg (16mg/dropper) – for dogs above 50lbs
  • 1000mg (33mg/dropper) – extra strength for large dogs

Dogs starting with CBD generally take 1 mg of CBD for every 5 lbs they weigh. So, if your dog weighs 50 lbs, you’ll want to give them 10 mg of CBD daily to start.

Get the best value by purchasing the 250 mg or 500 mg concentrations. Honest Paws products have a graded dropper for accurate measuring, so it’s easy to give your smaller pup a half-dose while saving money.

Where to buy Honest Paws

While your local store might carry Honest Paws Mobility, we recommend purchasing straight from their website. They offer:

  • 30-day money-back guarantee
  • 15% off on recurring subscriptions
  • Free shipping on orders $48+
  • Knowledgeable customer service

2. Best value CBD oil for dogs with arthritis
Simple Wag CBD Oil

According to our 2022 review, the best value CBD oil for dogs on the market right now is Simple Wag’s full-spectrum pet tincture. This is a USDA-certified organic CBD oil, meaning that their ingredients and manufacturing process are both verified organic and made to human-grade standards.

Simple Wag uses a full-spectrum CBD extract in their products that’s regularly lab-tested to confirm cannabinoid richness, so there’s no compromise in ingredient quality despite the lower retail price.

Like Honest Paws, Simple Wag is another pet-only CBD brand, meaning they can devote all of their attention to making a product that meets dogs’ needs.

Brand: Simple Wag
2022 score: 2nd
Made for: General inflammation

Active ingredients : CBD
Concentration : 300 – 900 mg
Quality testing : Read the lab report

Brand : Simple Wag
2022 score : 2nd
Made for : General inflammation

Active ingredients : CBD
Concentration: 300 – 900 mg
Quality testing : Read the lab report

3. Runner up CBD oil for dogs with arthritis
CBDistillery Pet CBD Oil

When it comes to specifically targeting pain, CBDistillery’s Pet Tincture is hard to beat. That’s because of the cannabis compounds CBDistillery captures in their extraction. Thanks to careful production processes, they keep an impressive amount of CBD-A, along with safe and legal levels of THC.

Read more

It’s true that even small amounts of THC have been known to cause side effects in dogs, such as difficulty walking and nausea.

However, the risk of side effects in hemp-made CBD is extremely low and we think that owners of dogs in moderate daily pain should seriously consider the benefits of small amounts of THC.

What are customers saying?

“This works wonders for my aging dog. Helps to manage his arthritis and he loves it. As soon as I touch the bottle he starts drooling!” (Chelsea S.)

“I’m really seeing some great results for Roscoe–he’s peppier and appears to be getting up, from lying down, easier.” (Vivian G.)

4. Third place CBD oil for dogs with arthritis
Charlotte’s Web Hemp Extract

This CBD oil from Charlotte’s Web features in nearly all of our “Best Of” lists thanks to its comprehensive extraction, which makes it one of the most versatile pet CBD products around. With a wide range of other cannabinoids, we think this thoroughly full spectrum product should have similar pain-relieving effects to CBDistillery above.

Read more

Charlotte’s Web does fall down in terms of owner feedback, although this is more due to a lack of owner reviews for the brand’s size, rather than the content of the reviews themselves.

Reading them over, it’s clear that many owners have had great success when using this brand as a treatment for pain and discomfort.

“A couple of years ago our dog was having trouble rising and her hind legs were stiff. After a week or so on CBD oil, she was back to being the active dog she always was. We take our walks, she hunts the yard, and no one can believe she is 12 years old.” (Katharine S.)

“Love the product – My 14-year-old Goldendoodle is doing so well because of it!” (Jill M.)

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5. We also like
Innovet PUR CBD Oil

We think that Innovet Pur CBD is a great option for fighting inflammation, thanks to the levels of CBD-A found in their extract. We’re also big fans of Innovet’s shopping experience, which includes free, no-minimum shipping and a 15 percent discount for owners who subscribe to their products.

Read more

We think that Innovet is owners’ best bet for fighting inflammation, thanks to the levels of CBD-A found in their extract.

What are customers saying?

“My big 9 yr old rescue Amstaff has bad knees, arthritis, and other trauma from his hard life on the streets. Once he blew out his second knee and we knew surgery would not be an option, we investigated and tried Innovet CBD oil. It has worked wonders. He doesn’t limp anymore and there are days when he acts like a 2-year-old, jumping and leaping around.” (Robbin H).

“I have a 7-year-old Rottweiler who has hip dysplasia and arthritis. He has been n prescription medication for years to help with pain management. We started him on Innovet CBD oil two months ago and he is no longer in need of the prescription medications! His pain is being managed and he is much more active.” (Amy S).

6. We also like
CBDfx tincture

Unlike the products above, CBDfx’s Pet Tincture uses a broad spectrum hemp extract, which means it contains a narrower range of active hemp compounds.

That said, CBDfx has accumulated an impressive number of positive consumer reviews for a relatively new company, with many pups appreciating the natural bacon flavoring in this CBD oil.

Alongside the bacon flavoring, CBDfx’s Pet Tincture contains curcumin, the active component of turmeric. Studies on curcumin have shown that it can produce similar anti-inflammatory effects to NSAIDs, especially in animals with inflammatory conditions such as arthritis.

The science of CBD and arthritis in dogs

Studies have shown that CBD interacts with receptors that help to control the body’s inflammatory response.

This gives CBD the ability to produce many of the same internal effects as NSAIDs – anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed by vets that often come with side effects.

Recent studies on CBD and canine arthritis

A recent study by Baylor College of Medicine found that four weeks of daily CBD supplementation significantly improved symptoms of canine arthritis .

In 2018, a study at Cornell tested CBD on dogs with osteoarthritis and found dogs supplementing with cannabis extracts experienced increased comfort and activity levels, as assessed by veterinarians.

In 2020, a study on dogs already taking anti-inflammatory drugs for joint pain found that CBD could significantly improve outcomes.

In 2016, a study using CBD on rats with induced arthritis found that CBD significantly reduced joint swelling.

A similar study on mice with induced rheumatoid arthritis found that CBD improved mice’s hind paws and caused immunosuppressive effects against further damage.

CBD-A

Of all the active compounds found in hemp flowers, CBD and certain other cannabinoids have been shown to be particularly effective at reducing inflammation. One of those cannabinoids is CBD-A.

  • CBD-A has been shown in studies to tackle inflammation through a similar strategy to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • GW Pharmaceuticals, the company behind the first FDA-approved CBD medication, has two CBDA patents filed—one for inflammatory skin conditions and another for cancer.

For this reason, all of our top pick CBD oils in this category contain higher-than-average amounts of CBD-A (according to independent batch testing results).

What causes canine arthritis?

Arthritic joints are the most common source of chronic pain in senior dogs. In fact, as many as 60 percent of dogs (of all ages) are thought to experience joint degradation as they age.

While there are a few main types of canine arthritis, the vast majority of cases are age-related. Osteoarthritis is a thinning of cartilage that triggers the production of enzymes, causing excess inflammation.

While swollen joints and other types of arthritis aren’t necessarily life-threatening for dogs, they can stop our four-legged friends from doing all the things they love best. Walks, playtime, and even laying down to sleep or going to the bathroom can become highly uncomfortable.

Here, CBD is showing real potential as a non-intrusive, effective treatment.

A big part of CBD’s success with arthritis is the way it combats inflammation. Research suggests that cannabis compounds work a lot like NSAIDs – without the associated side effect profile.

In studies on CBD and other cannabinoids, CBD has proven successful in fighting inflammation caused by:

  • Auto-immune issues
  • Stress
  • Injuries
  • Cancer
  • Joint disease
CBD side effects and existing treatments

Even for dogs who are already on a successful course of treatment, CBD can provide additional benefits, removing residual inflammation and helping to soothe anxiety and stress.

With evidence of CBD’s effectiveness growing, we recommend comparing the benefits of CBD supplementation against existing treatment options.

The majority of dogs diagnosed with acute or chronic pain are currently prescribed courses of pet-specific NSAIDs or opioid medication. While effective, both types of drugs frequently cause unwanted side effects.

According to the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine, the most common adverse effects of NSAIDs include:

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Lack of interest in food
  • Lethargy or low activity levels

More rarely, NSAIDs and opioids can cause stomach ulcers, as well as kidney and liver failure.

Because it’s a proven anti-inflammatory, CBD can have a similar effect to NSAIDs without the risk of adverse reactions. So, while pharmaceutical medications may still have a role to play, CBD offers a natural alternative for dogs in need of daily pain relief.

NSAIDs for canine arthritis

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs work by blocking enzymes that signal swelling and pain.
  • But even pet-specific NSAIDs such as Rimadyl and Metacam frequently cause stomach upset, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • Dogs should never be given Tylenol or Advil.

Opioids for canine arthritis

  • For stronger pain relief, vets may prescribe opiates. They work by blocking the brain’s ability to recognize pain.
  • Opioids are narcotics, meaning pets require close monitoring, and may suffer from mood changes, confusion,
    restlessness, or trouble breathing.

Always consult a veterinarian before undertaking any new treatment plan for joint disease with your dog.

CBD oil for dogs with arthritis – FAQ
  • What is CBD oil?
  • How does CBD oil work with arthritis?
  • What’s the difference between hemp oil and CBD oil?
  • What size CBD oil should I buy?
  • Should I buy CBD oils or CBD dog treats for dogs with arthritis?
  • How do I give my dog CBD oil for arthritis?
  • How much CBD should I give my dog for arthritis? (dosages)
  • How do I tell if my dog’s CBD oil is working?
  • Can dogs overdose from CBD oil?
  • Does CBD oil for dogs have any side effects?
  • Do vets recommend CBD oil for dogs with arthritis?
  • Can dogs take CBD with other arthritis medications?
What is CBD oil?

CBD oil is made from hemp plants. Hemp is a type of legal cannabis that contains non-intoxicating compounds, which are proven to reduce inflammation in humans and dogs.

These compounds are called cannabinoids. CBD is one of over 100 different cannabinoids found in hemp, alongside soothing aromatic oils known as terpenes.

Cannabinoids and terpenes stimulate an anti-inflammatory effect inside dogs’ bodies, which can help to reduce swelling, joint pain, and discomfort caused by arthritis and other canine joint diseases.

As a result, dogs supplementing with CBD oil may experience improved mobility and wellbeing.

CBD producers extract cannabinoids and terpenes from hemp and infuse them into an oil carrier to create their products. Fatty oils such as coconut oil or hemp seed oil are the most popular way to consume CBD extracts because they support full digestion and absorption.

How does CBD oil work with arthritis?

CBD can increase mobility and reduce discomfort in dogs with joint issues by stimulating a part of dogs’ bodies called the endocannabinoid system.

The endocannabinoid system is common to most mammals and plays a role in controlling inflammation, pain, and immune response.

Researchers have found that CBD and other cannabinoids interact with receptors in the endocannabinoid system to decrease the inflammatory response.

Because most joint diseases have an inflammatory base, CBD can therefore help to reduce symptoms.

What’s the difference between hemp oil and CBD oil?

CBD oil is a proven joint supplement that contains active ingredients (CBD and other cannabinoids).

Hemp oil, on the other hand, is a food product made from hemp seeds with no active ingredients. However, it is considered beneficial for dogs with joint issues due to high levels of Omega fatty acids.

Things can get confusing when CBD extracts are infused into hemp oil carriers. Some brands do this to give dogs all the benefits of hemp – both the active CBD ingredients and the dietary Omega fats.

Always read product labels carefully to check whether an oil actually contains CBD and active cannabinoids.

What size CBD oil should I buy?

Dogs taking CBD oil for arthritis and joint pain should be given a daily dose over several weeks or months. It’s also important that they receive an appropriate concentration of CBD for their size and weight.

As a result, owners of arthritic dogs should look at buying medium-to-large size CBD oils with the right concentration for their pet, in order to get the best value for money.

The standard way to determine the right concentration of CBD for your dog is to give a minimum of 0.2 mg of CBD per pound of a dog’s weight.

For smaller dogs, that usually means buying CBD products with a concentration of between 100 and 300 mg. For larger dogs, concentrations up to and beyond 1000 mg are available.

Should I buy CBD oils or CBD dog treats for dogs with arthritis?

For dogs with arthritis, we recommend CBD oils over CBD treats.

This is for two main reasons. Firstly, the fatty oils used in CBD oil products provide extra dietary benefits for dogs with joint issues. The Omega 3 and 6 acids found in ingredients like hemp seed oil or salmon oil can contribute to stronger, healthier, cartilage and bones.

Secondly, studies show that consuming CBD alongside high-fat foods can increase absorption into the body by up to four times. This makes oils the best way to take CBD orally.

That said, many CBD companies are aware of the benefits of healthy fats when it comes to diet and CBD absorption. As a result, they often produce treats with high-fat recipes made from whole food ingredients.

Here’s our most recent list of the best CBD dog treats , which includes recommendations for dogs with arthritis.

How do I give my dog CBD oil for arthritis?

Applying CBD topically (by rubbing it into dogs’ joints or skin) won’t have as much on joint inflammation, as it doesn’t allow CBD to enter the bloodstream.

Instead, the best way to give a dog with arthritis CBD oil is either orally or sublingually (under the tongue).

Oral CBD application means adding CBD oil to a dog’s food so that they eat it. CBD treats are another convenient method of oral application.

Sublingual CBD application means dropping CBD oil directly into a dog’s mouth, ideally around the gums or under the tongue. This method has the advantage of being the fastest method of CBD absorption, but can be more difficult for owners.

How much CBD should I give my dog for arthritis? (dosages)

As a natural supplement, there are no official CBD dosages for dogs. Instead, each CBD product should come with its own specific recommendations, and we always recommend that you follow them.

There’s a general consensus across animal healthcare experts is that a good starting CBD dose for most dogs is 0.2 mg of CBD per pound of bodyweight. So, if your dog weighs 20 pounds, we recommend beginning with a 4 mg dose of CBD, given daily for 1-2 weeks.

If your dog tolerates the dosage well but gets none or minimal benefit, you can slowly raise their dose. After prolonged supplementation, dogs may become less sensitive to CBD and require a larger amount to received the same effects.

Remember that CBD concentration differs from total product volume.

A daily routine works best for dogs with arthritis

In clinical studies involving dogs with osteoarthritis, dogs who were given a consistent dose of CBD showed the most promising results.

Research suggests that a supplementation schedule of one or two doses per day for a minimum of two weeks is the best way to maximize CBD’s effects.

No upper limits for CBD tolerance have yet been recorded in dogs, so pups for whom CBD is having a positive effect can continue to take it indefinitely.

How do I tell if my dog’s CBD oil is working?

CBD doesn’t work for every dog with arthritis, so it’s important to observe your pet carefully over the first few weeks of supplementation, to see if they are benefiting from their CBD product.

It can also take different amounts of time for CBD to take effect, depending upon a dog’s metabolism and level of inflammation – as well as the quality and strength of CBD. Some owners report noticeable effects as soon as thirty minutes after a first dose, while others only see benefits after a week or more.

When looking for signs that CBD is helping with your dogs’ arthritis, check for the following things:

As inflammation around a dog’s hip joints decreases, they should experience reduced discomfort and find it easier to sit, stand up, and run.

Dogs who show more interest in moving around and less difficulty in going from prone to standing are therefore likely to be feeling the benefits of CBD.

  1. Changes in interactions

That same inflammation and pain caused by joint friction can also affect dogs’ overall wellbeing, causing them to develop anxious or aggressive behaviors.

Reduced agitation, gloominess, or barking may all be associated with CBD taking effect.

  1. Specific symptom reductions

Common canine conditions like arthritis, hip dysplasia, and joint degeneration can cause obvious symptoms like stiffness, weakened or shivering hindquarters, and difficulty changing posture.

The clearest indication that CBD is having a positive impact on your dog’s life is a reduction in these specific symptoms.

Can dogs overdose from CBD oil?

In the mid-twentieth century, when animal research was conducted to more questionable standards, scientists tested the toxicity of CBD and other cannabinoids by giving monkeys extremely high doses, up to 30 mg per kg of bodyweight.

At this dose, they found that CBD began to produce harmful effects on the liver, kidneys, and other organs, suggesting that CBD does have a toxic level and it is possible for dogs and other animals to overdose.

However, these doses are extremely high, many times the recommended amount for dogs. It’s very unlikely that a dog would ever consume the amount of CBD needed to produce negative effects.

Does CBD oil for dogs have any side effects?

One of the advantages of CBD over traditional medication for canine arthritis is that it offers a favorable side effect profile.

Some dogs may experience sleepiness, light nausea, or diarrhea when first taking CBD, but the majority of humans and animals find CBD to be completely side-effect-free.

This stands opposed to many veterinary-approved medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), which come with the risk of gastrointestinal distress and damage to the stomach lining.

If your dog displays side effects after taking a CBD product, discontinue use.

Do vets recommend CBD oil for dogs with arthritis?

CBD pet products haven’t received federal approval, which means that they can’t yet be prescribed by veterinarians in most states. As a result, vets are unlikely to recommend CBD oil for dogs with arthritis in an official capacity.

However, a growing number of vets across the country are aware and supportive of CBD supplementation for dogs with inflammatory issues such as joint pain. Your vet may be happy to recommend CBD in a personal capacity, even if they can’t prescribe it.

Furthermore, animal healthcare specialists in research settings are showing major interest in the benefits of CBD as a therapeutic or treatment for canine arthritis, with several clinical studies published over the last few years.

Can dogs take CBD with other arthritis medications?

CBD is compatible with the majority of medications, including common arthritis medications.

It’s always important to discuss your dog’s full treatment regime with your vet, including CBD and any other supplements, to ensure there are no potential negative effects.

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