Best CBD Oil for Tourette’s Syndrome – May 2022
Why People Are Turning to CBD for Tourette’s Syndrome
Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is a mental disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations known as tics. The motor tics represent a cardinal symptom traditionally linked to a dysfunction of the basal ganglia (4) .
Some examples of simple tics include eye blinking, facial grimacing, and head or shoulder jerking (5) .
The onset of TS usually occurs before the age of twenty-one, and its cause is relatively unknown (6) .
Cannabidiol ( CBD ) is believed to cause antipsychotic effects (7) , which may benefit people with mental illnesses, such as Tourette’s syndrome .
CBD is a chemical compound acquired from cannabis plants that have shown potential therapeutic applications in neuropsychiatric disorders (8) .
CBD is the opposite of tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC ), another cannabis constituent, in that it does not cause mind-altering effects upon use.
A study published by the journal Brain Sciences analyzed the effects of nabiximols, a combination drug containing THC and CBD , on a TS patient . The twenty-two-year-old male subject was given a daily dose of the medication for two weeks.
Researchers discovered that the treatment resulted in significant improvements of both tics and premonitory urges in the patient (9) .
They also noted that CBD ’s presence might have made the combination a more effective treatment , due to its ability to mitigate THC ‘s psychotropic effects.
These findings are similar to a 2016 study wherein a TS patient demonstrated marked improvement in movement and vocal tics after treatment with Sativex (10) , the trade name for nabiximols.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Sativex when applied to a treatment-resistant TS . The subject was given a daily dose containing 10.8 mg of THC and 10 mg of CBD for several weeks.
Based on subjective and objective measures, the Tourette’s syndrome patient displayed significant improvements in the frequency and severity of motor and vocal tics post-treatment (11) .
The study’s authors concluded that their results support the suggestion that cannabinoids, like CBD , may be used to treat Tourette’s syndrome .
Although the data on CBD for Tourette’s patients are minimal, these findings hint that the cannabis compound may be a potential therapeutic agent for the mental disorder.
How CBD Oil Works to Help with Tourette’s Syndrome
To understand how CBD may benefit people with Tourette’s syndrome , learning about its interaction with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is essential.
The ECS is a part of the human body that researchers believe regulates a variety of crucial bodily functions. There is evidence implying that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the cause, symptomatology, and treatment of mental illnesses (12) .
The CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, the primary transmitters used by the ECS, are said to be involved in neurodegenerative disorders (13) .
This idea may stem from findings, particularly of CB1 receptors, which are found to be abundant in areas associated with movement and mental processes.
Cannabinoids, such as CBD , are believed to have neuroprotective properties based on their interaction with these ECS receptors (14) .
CBD is also reported to modulate various receptors outside the ECS. For instance, the compound is said to exert its neuroprotective effects based on how it engages with adenosine receptors (15) .
The compound is reported to increase adenosine levels in the brain. Increased adenosine has been linked to neuroprotection (16) .
The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Tourette’s Syndrome
- CBD may benefit individuals with Tourette’s syndrome . Early studies have shown that taking a dose mixed with cannabidiol improved motor and vocal tics in TS patients .
- People in the United States can purchase CBD in most places. In states where cannabidiol is allowed, users can buy CBD products even if they do not present a doctor’s prescription.
- CBD is a non-euphoric substance that does not cause a person to feel “high” after intake, unlike THC . CBD is also thought to counteract the psychoactive effects of tetrahydrocannabinol .
- The World Health Organization (WHO) published a report stating that they found CBD to be well-tolerated in humans. The subjects that they assessed from past clinical trials did not seem to develop substance dependence after CBD use (17) .
- CBD ‘s potential therapeutic applications have been acknowledged by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) (18) . The FDA supports medical research concerning the use of cannabis and its derivatives.
- The United States 2018 Farm Bill legalized the cultivation of hemp and the sale of hemp-derived products, so long as the items are produced in a manner consistent with the law (19) .
- Human studies on CBD ‘s efficacy for Tourette’s syndrome have been carried out on individual patients. The lack of more in-depth studies has made it difficult for experts to determine if CBD can effectively treat the condition.
- Many CBD products sold today are prone to mislabeling (20) . Buying cannabidiol online and in some physical dispensaries puts people at risk of consuming more or less of the compound.
- A study in 2017 assessed the safety and potential adverse reactions of using CBD . Although considered safe, CBD can still interact with other prescription medications and cause harmful side effects to users (21) .
- Epidiolex, a drug used to treat two rare forms of epilepsy, is the only CBD product that has been approved by the FDA thus far (22) .
How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Tourette’s Syndrome
Hypnotherapy is considered an alternative treatment of Tourette syndrome for managing tics. The approach is meant to provide relaxation and concentration so that undesired thoughts are eliminated (23) .
Antidepressants have also been reported as treatment options that help control symptoms of anxiety and sadness.
For instance, a dose of imipramine (Tofranil) was found to improve depression and behavior in a patient with Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome (GTS) (24) .
Similarly, cannabidiol is said to have properties that can reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
One case report on a patient with post-traumatic stress disorder revealed that CBD improved the quality and quantity of the subject’s sleep. It was also found that CBD oil treatment resulted in a sustained decrease in anxiety (25) .
A clinical study published by The Permanente Journal analyzed evidence concerning CBD ‘s supposed effects in sleep and anxiety.
The researchers assessed seventy-two adult patients and learned that more than half of the subjects experienced improvements in anxiety and sleep scores (26) .
These findings suggest that CBD may be useful for people with Tourette’s syndrome .
How to Choose the Right CBD for Tourette’s Syndrome
Full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, and CBD isolates are the three types of CBD available today.
The full-spectrum CBD oil is considered to be the most popular among the three. It contains all of the naturally-occurring compounds of cannabis plants, such as flavonoids, terpenes, and THC .
Full-spectrum CBD products are high in cannabidiol and only contain small amounts of the other compounds.
Full-spectrum CBD is perhaps the most potent and effective form of CBD oil due to the cannabinoid synergism known as the “entourage effect (27) . ” This effect is a proposed mechanism wherein cannabis compounds are more effective when consumed together.
The second type of CBD is known as broad-spectrum. This variant is similar to full-spectrum, except that it does not contain tetrahydrocannabinol .
THC is a psychoactive compound that is often associated with medical marijuana . Some users prefer to use broad-spectrum CBD oil because of its lack of THC content.
The third option when buying cannabidiol products is CBD isolates. This CBD variant is often sold in powdered or crystalline form.
Users who want to take only pure CBD can purchase isolates. CBD products that only contain cannabidiol do not have a distinct taste or smell.
No matter the type of CBD one decides to purchase, it is essential to choose the best quality product all the time to maximize its supposed health benefits .
- Acquire a laboratory report or a certificate of analysis (COA) of the chosen CBD product . This document indicates that the item has undergone strict testing and contains the exact specifications listed on its label.
- Select and purchase only CBD derived from hemp. Industrial hemp is the most reliable source of obtaining top-quality cannabidiol .
- Make sure to read up on product and shop reviews before buying from an online CBD store. When purchasing from a physical dispensary, ensure that the establishment has the authorization to sell CBD products .
- Be aware of the legalities concerning the purchase and application of CBD in the state where one plans to consume it.
- Consult a healthcare professional, particularly someone with experience in using medical cannabis , before using any CBD product .
CBD Dosage for Tourette’s Syndrome
At the time of writing, the FDA has not approved any CBD product for treating patients with Tourette’s syndrome . Therefore, no official dosage guidelines are available.
However, studies on CBD showed that doses of 300 mg to 600 mg of CBD were able to reduce anxiety in human subjects (28) .
A single dose of 160 mg of CBD reportedly improved sleep duration in a crossover case study with nitrazepam, a medication for anxiety and insomnia (29) .
Meanwhile, doses reaching 1,500 mg of CBD per day have repeatedly shown to be well-tolerated in human participants (30) .
How to Take CBD Oil for Tourette’s Syndrome
Users who want to measure CBD hemp oil they take accurately may benefit from CBD tinctures. This delivery format allows a person to apply the cannabidiol oil sublingually.
CBD as tinctures come with droppers, making it easy to measure and apply the compound under the tongue.
For those looking to use CBD for relaxation, topicals are the most recommended choices. CBD in topical form is available as balms, creams, and salves and may be used in massage therapies.
Meanwhile, CBD is also sold as edibles or capsules. These products are the most straightforward way of taking cannabidiol and are great for those using CBD for the first time.
CBD gummies can be found in different shapes and sizes. The most common flavors are apple, blueberry, and watermelon.
Symptoms of Tourette’s Syndrome
Tics are the main symptoms of people with TS. These symptoms often show up when a child is between five to ten years of age.
Motor and vocal are the two types of tics.
Motor tics are the involuntary movements of the body, such as jerking an arm or shrugging the shoulders.
Vocal tics are the sounds that a patient makes with their voice. Some examples of vocal tics include humming, yelling, and throat clearing .
Typical initial symptoms of TS are motor tics that occur in the neck and head area. These tics usually become worse when the individual becomes stressed or excited but tend to improve when they are calm or focused.
In most cases, Tourette’s syndrome tics decrease once a person reaches adolescence and sometimes disappear entirely. However, many individuals with TS retain their tics in adulthood and, in some cases, become worse (31) .
Besides tic disorders , people with Tourette’s syndrome can also exhibit other symptoms.
They may have obsessive-compulsive disorder ( OCD ), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other significant learning difficulties (32) .
Excessive foul language and swearing ( coprolalia ) are rare and only affect about one out of ten people with Tourette’s syndrome .
Repeating sounds, words, or phrases ( echolalia ) is also another symptom of TS.
Tourette’s syndrome patients may also display behavioral problems, such as antisocial behavior, rage attacks, and inappropriate behavior.
Most people with TS experience a strong urge before a tic. Known as premonitory sensations, they are often relieved once the movement has been carried out.
Some examples of premonitory sensations include a burning feeling in the eyes before blinking, a dry or sore throat before grunting, and an itchy muscle before jerking.
The nervous system disorder known as Tourette’s syndrome is characterized by repetitive, involuntary motor and vocal tics . Some examples include facial grimacing, muscle spasms , head or shoulder jerking, and eye blinking.
CBD is believed to have antipsychotic properties that may be beneficial to people with neurological disorders , like Tourette’s syndrome .
Researchers in follow-up studies have found that a combination of CBD and THC was able to significantly improve both tics and premonitory urges in patients.
Cannabidiol is believed to interact with the endocannabinoid system through the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Studies have also shown that CBD engages with other receptors outside of the ECS.
Although the data on CBD Tourette’s syndrome is quite limited, these findings suggest that the medicinal cannabis compound may be used as a treatment for Tourette’s syndrome .
There are various types of CBD products sold today. One can purchase edibles, topicals, and tinctures, depending on their preference.
CBD use is legal in most states. The United States Farm Bill of 2018 allows the sale and transport of CBD products, provided t hey are made in a manner consistent with the law.
CBD Oil for ADHD? Despite Scarce Research, Patients Are Trying It
Early research suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) may help patients with epilepsy. It is also believed to relieve pain, anxiety, mood disorders, and even acne. But what about ADHD or ADD? So far, research linking CBD oil to ADHD symptom relief does not exist. That isn’t stopping patients from trying it.
Verified Medically reviewed by Roberto Olivardia, Ph.D. Updated on January 5, 2022
UPDATE: On November 25, 2019, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a revised consumer update regarding safety concerns about cannabidiol (CBD) products. Due to limited research data, the FDA is unable to declare CBD products safe, according to the updated statement. The FDA warns that CBD can cause liver damage, increased drowsiness, and a number of other side effects. The impact of daily CBD use over a sustained period of time is unknown. Likewise, the FDA says there is insufficient research on the effect of CBD on the developing brain, on fetuses, and on the male reproductive system. The FDA has approved only one CBD product, which treats two rare forms of epilepsy. In late November, it issued warning letters to 15 companies for illegally selling products containing CBD.
These days, it’s tough to find an online community or social media group not singing the praises of cannabidiol (CBD) oil. This helps to explain why so many people are exploring its benefits for diseases and disorders ranging from Alzheimer’s and Parkinsons to PTSD and, yes, attention deficit disorder (ADHD or ADD). Though research suggests that CBD oil may benefit patients with epilepsy and other disorders, any such claims around ADHD are only that: claims.
What Is CBD? Does It Help ADHD?
CBD is a product of the marijuana (cannabis) plant with the high-inducing THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) compound removed, which means it is not psychoactive. CBD — often in the form of an oil, a tincture, or an edible — has been rumored to reduce anxiety, a common symptom among those diagnosed with ADHD symptoms. No one, though — not even the drug’s most hardcore advocates — claims CBD is a treatment for ADHD.
According to Mitch Earleywine, professor of psychology at SUNY-Albany and an advisory-board member of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), there is “no published data, let alone randomized clinical trials, [that] support the use of CBD for ADHD.”
Even so, word of CBD’s potential benefits — proven or otherwise — are often enough to compel some patients with ADHD to experiment. Dr. John Mitchell of the Duke University ADHD Program says that one of his patients, an adult woman with ADHD, tried CBD. Twice. On her own. Without his approval or supervision.
“I bought one vial for $50 that contained 30 gel tablets, and I took all of them over a few weeks,” says Mitchell’s patient, who preferred to remain anonymous. “I’d never tried CBD or any type of cannabis before, and I felt no changes. But I didn’t have any adverse effects, either.”
Anecdotally, this outcome appears common for half of those trying CBD on their own — regardless of the quantity, quality, or type used. The other half claim some positives with regard to CBD and ADHD: “I was able to relax” or “I felt less manic” are common refrains. The problem, as Dr. Mitchell and the broader community of ADHD and CBD researchers point out, is a dearth of studies around CBD. No single research team has yet studied the possible effects — good or bad — of CBD oil for ADHD symptoms specifically.
“There are anecdotes that CBD may help with ADHD,” says Dr. Robert Carson, an assistant professor of neurology and pediatrics at Vanderbilt University who co-authored a 2018 study on the efficacy of CBD on epilepsy, “but this is true for many other symptoms or diseases. Thus, there may be patients whose ADHD symptoms improve after adding CBD, but we cannot generalize that anecdote more broadly. Secondly, the cases we’re most likely to hear about are the one where somebody had a great response — not the 10 who did not.”
“I am not aware of any scientific or clinical data that would speak to the safety or efficacy of using CBD in the treatment of ADHD,” says Ryan Vandrey, Ph.D., a member of John Hopkins University School of Medicine’s Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit. “There is no scientific basis from which CBD should be recommended for use as a treatment for ADHD, nor is there any data that could speak to which product or dose would be appropriate.”
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends treating ADHD in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 with FDA-approved medications, plus parent training in behavior modification and behavioral classroom interventions. Likewise, research confirms that “stimulant medications are most effective, and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD.” All ADHD treatment decisions should be made in consultation and coordination with a licensed medical provider.
Is CBD Legal? Is It Safe?
To date, 33 states and the District of Columbia have passed laws broadly legalizing marijuana in some form; 10 other states and Washington, D.C., have adopted laws legalizing marijuana for recreational use. Even so, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration considers CBD, like all cannabinoids, a schedule 1 drug — making it as illegal as heroin and ecstasy. Despite this, one cannabis industry expert predicts that CBD products alone will comprise a nearly $3 billion market by 2021.
With all that profit on the horizon, why so few studies? At least partially to blame is the legality of CBD; it’s difficult to attain a federal grant to study a federally illegal drug. Politics also come into play, as do lingering public perceptions of cannabis as a gateway drug that may lead to serious mental disorders, lethargy, or both.
Nevertheless, Dr. Mitchell feels that “The perception that [CBD] can have a negative effect has gone down because it’s becoming more available.”
This is not a perception shared by all of Dr. Mitchell’s peers, who note professional resentment and stigma regarding funding for cannabis research. “There’s a lot of political opposition coming from the business and scientific communities,” asserts Dr. Jacob Vigil, director of the University of New Mexico’s Medical Cannabis Research Fund. “It’s still highly stigmatized, and we need more studies.”
The studies done on CBD and ADHD to date amount to… practically nothing. One 2011 study showed that, among a group of 24 people with social anxiety disorder, the half who’d taken CBD were able to speak in front of a large audience. In 2015, researchers in Germany examined the relationship between cannabis (CBD and THC) and ADD in 30 patients, all of whom said they experienced better sleep, better concentration, and reduced impulsivity while using the cannabis products. Finally, a 2017 study looking at CBD oil and ADHD in adults found that the oil improved some symptoms, but that more studies were needed to confirm its findings.
The Dangers of Experimenting with CBD for ADHD
The Netherlands’ self-professed “cannabis myth buster,” Arno Hazekamp stated in a recent paper, “While new CBD products keep entering the market virtually unchecked, effective regulatory control of these products has stayed far behind. As a result, unknown risks about long-term effects remain unaddressed, especially in vulnerable groups such as children.”
“During [a person’s] development, I worry about cannabinoids, both CBD and THC,” says UCLA’s Evans. “There are adenosine receptors (and CB2 receptors) on the microglia that are critical for brain development, and CBD inhibits adenosine uptake. This may be a beneficial factor for epilepsy and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but who knows for ADHD.”
And while CBD may potentially benefit some patients with ADHD, “One is doing an experiment on oneself by taking CBD for ADHD,” Evans adds. “CBD is anti-inflammatory and I’m not sure there is good evidence mechanistically that for ADHD it might be helpful.”
It’s also unknown how CBD may interact with other medications. “CBD in any form is a drug, and thus has a potential for side effects or interactions with other drugs, specifically those metabolized through the liver [CBD is metabolized by the same enzyme in the liver that metabolizes many other medicines and supplements],” Carson says. “And with other ADHD medications that have sedating qualities, such as guanfacine or clonidine, there may be additive effects that may not be beneficial.”
Also potentially harmful is the non-standard and wildly fluctuating amount of CBD in most CBD products, even those labeled as “pure CBD oil.” Some such products may also contain other ingredients — pesticides, additives, herbs, and even THC. “CBD alone has multiple actions on the cells in the brain and we don’t know which ones are clearly responsible for its known benefits,” Carson says. “It gets more complicated when we have less purified products that also include THC and CBDV [cannabidivarin].”
Dangers may also exist in the method of delivery. CBD is packaged and consumed in oils, tinctures, or edibles — each one absorbed differently by a person’s body. “The labeling in this industry,” says Vigil of UNM, “is horrific.”
‘Natural’ Doesn’t Necessarily Mean ‘Safe’
Once CBD enters the body, no one yet knows how it works. Its long-term effects are a mystery. Exactly how does CBD work — in the brain and over many years? As Dr. Carson bluntly puts it: “We don’t know and we don’t know.”
None of this will stop some people from self-medicating with CBD or trying it on their children. “Apparently there are products offering about 30mg of CBD per dose,” Earleywine says. “I rarely see published work with humans that shows much of an effect below 300mg, which… would get quite expensive… So it’s probably a waste of time and money.”
“The bottom line,” Evans says, “is that there is a dearth of research on all cannabinoid actions — because of its schedule 1 classification — and no clear scientific evidence I can find to endorse or not endorse CBD use for ADHD.”
Perhaps because researchers have documented no negative links between CBD and ADHD, some “patients go through trial and error with CBD,” Vigil says. “First they go on the Internet, where they start with an isolate CBD. Then they try the vanilla products — only to find they get more benefits when they add THC.
“They do that because cannabis is so variable that patients are forced to experiment. Also because clinical trials can’t really tell you anything about the decisions that patients actually make in the real world. And finally because there’s not going to be a uniform solution for everybody.”
“Families need to think very hard about potential risks versus benefits for treating other disorders, including ADHD,” Carson advises. “So please discuss what you are thinking about doing with your child’s physician. In the absence of good data, a dose of 1 milligram per kilogram of body weight per day is where most patients start when using CBD for epilepsy — and this seems to be well tolerated. But if the side effects from any medication are worse than the problem was to begin with, that patient might be on too much.
“I like to remind families,” Carson adds, “that just because something is natural does not mean it is safe.”