CBD Glossary: A Simple and Easy To Understand Breakdown Of All Terminology associated with CBD. From Cannabinoids to Terpenes to the Entourage Effect. Read our Glossary for Help in Understanding more about CBD Oil and Capsules. CDB Glossary EVOQ CANNABIS GLOSSARY CANNABIS COMES WITH QUESTIONS Here are clarifying answers through this glossary to help guide and educate your understanding of cannabis. Anandamide | Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter. The name is taken from th The list of terms in use by the hemp / CBD community can be intimidating. Here we break down some of the common terms for your reference.
CBD Glossary: The main CBD terminology you need to know
When it comes to buying supplements for our wellbeing, we all want to be as well informed as possible. In the case of CBD, there’s a lot of terminologies involved that many of us have probably never heard of.
We have created a glossary of the key terms to help those of you looking to understand more about this exciting new cannabinoid (definition below).
CBD – AKA Cannabidiol is one component of the cannabis plant-derived from Hemp. It makes up one of the 113 phytocannabinoids found in the plant. CBD may influence the human endocannabinoid system, which is responsible for affecting functions like Mood, Sleep, and how much pain we experience.
Cannabis – Cannabis Sativa L. is the name of the plant species to which both marijuana and Hemp belong. Many people are now defaulting to calling marijuana “cannabis,” but cannabis is a broad term for the whole plant species.
Endocannabinoid System – The Endocannabinoid System is one of many bodily systems that helps to maintain homeostasis in the body. Its receptors are widespread and found in the skin, immune cells, heart, brain, and digestive system, and it impacts body processes ranging from pain to mood to immunity.
Cannabinoid – A naturally occurring compound found in the cannabis plant. THC and CBD are the two most prevalent cannabinoids, but there are at least 113 known cannabinoids.
Endocannabinoid – An endocannabinoid is simply a cannabinoid that is naturally occurring within the body. I.e., endogenous (produced within the body), e.g., Anandamide AKA. The ‘Bliss molecule.’
Phytocannabinoid – A phytocannabinoid is simply a plant-based cannabinoid. Plants like Hemp have their cannabinoids that can affect (either directly or indirectly) the endocannabinoid system. There are over 113 different phytocannabinoids in the hemp plant, each with potentially different effects.
CBD Oil – This is where CBD is mixed with a carrier oil and placed in a dropper. The dropper administers the CBD oil under the tongue (sublingual consumption). Believed to be one of the most effective ways of consuming CBD.
CBD Capsules – A CBD capsule is a specific delivery method for CBD. It is taken orally, much like any other gel capsule or vitamin you see on shelves. Because each dose of CBD is already measured out for you in each capsule, there’s no guesswork involved in how much CBD you’re ingesting or a need to figure out your ideal amount.
Broad Spectrum – Broad-spectrum CBD products are created from the entire plant leaves, flowers, stem, and seeds and contain an array of beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes–but zero THC. To create Broad Spectrum CBD, the hemp plant must undergo additional processing to remove as many trace amounts of THC as possible, while still preserving its therapeutic properties. Sagely Naturals’ products all contain broad-spectrum CBD. All the whole-plant benefits without the intoxicating effects.
Full Spectrum – Full Spectrum CBD refers to an extract created from the entire plant – leaves, flowers, stem, and seeds – without any filtering of THC. The full range of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds remain intact, as well as up to 0.3% THC Isolate.
Terpenes – Terpenes (and terpenoids) are aromatic organic hydrocarbons found in many plants and even some insects. Plants developed terpenes to ward off herbivores that might eat them and to attract helpful predators and pollinators. Terpenes are secreted in the same glands that produce cannabinoids like CBD and THC.
Entourage Effect – The entourage effect is the result produced from the synergistic interaction of the cannabinoids, flavonoids, terpenes, and fatty acids naturally found in cannabis, which we mentioned above. The entourage effect refers to the beneficial effect of all these compounds working together as opposed to just one or two of these compounds working in isolation.
Certificate of Analysis – A document attesting that specific goods have undergone specified testing with specified results. In the case of CBD products, a finished good’s Certificate of Authenticity (COA) ensures CBD/THC potency and that there are no harmful contaminants in the product.
Hemp – Hemp is a plant that is part of the Cannabis Sativa L. plant species. To be legally classified as Hemp in the US, the plant must have very low levels of THC (less than .3%). The fibers can be used to make clothing, and the seeds and seed oil is nutritionally dense. Additionally, Hemp is a sustainable building material and removes chemicals and heavy metals from the soil, making it an incredibly eco-friendly plant.
Here are clarifying answers through this glossary to help guide and educate your understanding of cannabis.
Anandamide | Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter. The name is taken from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means “joy, bliss, delight”, and amide.
Bioavailability | Subcategory of absorption; the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%.
Dosage | The size or frequency of a dose of a medicine or drug.
Endocannabinoid System | a group of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors in the brain that are involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory; it mediates the psychoactive effects of cannabis.
What happens if the endocannabinoid system doesn’t function properly? What are the consequences of a chronically deficient or overactive endocannabinoid system?
In a word, disease.
Cutting-edge science has shown that the endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in nearly all pathological conditions. Thus, it stands to reason that “modulating endocannabinoid system activity may have therapeutic potential in almost all diseases affecting humans,” as Pal Pacher and George Kunos, scientists with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), suggested in a 2014 publication.
By modulating the endocannabinoid system and enhancing endocannabinoid tone, CBD and THC can slow – or in some cases stop – disease progression.”
Fun fact: Women even secrete endocannabinoids when breastfeeding, for their babies! Yes, the ECS plays a huge part in fertility, PMS, motherhood, and menopause.
Terpenes | The aromatic oils that give plants their unique scents. These compounds are known to carry an array of medicinal benefits also including modulating mood (aromatherapy) and increasing well-being.
CBD | Short for Cannabidiol, a major cannabinoid found in cannabis. Unlike its cousin THC, this cannabinoid is non-intoxicating (won’t get you high) and affects the body, not the mind. Think of CBD as a molecule that brings harmony back to the skin and body, it’s used to soothe distressed skin and restore its natural bliss.
Full Spectrum | CBD extract that has retained the other minor cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds from the plant, including a small amount of THC (< 0.3%)
Broad spectrum | Just like full spectrum CBD, broad spectrum extract contains minor cannabinoids, flavonoids, and usually a fair amount of terpenes, but has all of the residual THC removed from it, leaving 0% THC.
Distillate | Or “disty”, is the word for CBD extract in its more crude form, this includes Full Spectrum and Broad Spectrum CBD and is very thick and sticky, like a dark honey.
CBD isolate | Pure, white, powdery CBD isolate is produced by removing all other compounds found in the plant including terpenes, flavonoids, plant parts, and other cannabinoids, leaving about 99.9% crystalline CBD.
CBG | The non-acidic form of cannabigerolic acid, cannabigerol is an adaptogenic molecule and is the “parent molecule” from which several other cannabinoids are made. It has been making headlines for its numerous reported health benefits.
Hemp seed oil | The dark green, nutty flavored oil that comes from pressing hemp seeds. It is a very nutritive seed oil that’s high in antioxidants, omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, but contains no cannabinoids, no CBD, THC, CBN, etc. Hemp seed oil has been available in health food stores for decades and abundantly present in smoothies and skin care.
Flavonoid | Although they sound like they’d be responsible for flavors, they are actually responsible for the rainbow of colors found in nature! They may have medicinal benefits as well and are being studied for potential antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties.
Endo-cannabinoids | Cannabinoids produced by the body (Anandamide and 2-AG are the ones we know of at the moment). They act as neuromodulators to regulate various systems in the body.
Phyto-cannabinoids | Cannabinoids produced by plants, as opposed to those produced by the body (endocannabinoids) or synthetically. They are capable of either interacting with cannabinoid receptors or are chemical similarity to cannabinoids. *Fun fact the cannabis plant is not the only plant that makes cannabinoids – echinacea, red ginseng, carrots, and cruciferous vegetables can too!
Endo-cannabinoid system | The biological system whose purpose is to maintain balance in the body, through a network of neurotransmitters, receptors, and enzymes. The ECS helps regulate basic bodily functions that affect how we relax, eat, sleep, sweat, forget, and protect.
Entourage effect | The theory that cannabinoids and terpenes work best together! Whole plant extractions typically include CBD, THC, and more than 400 trace compounds. The entourage effect proposes a synergistic relationship between the active compounds like cannabinoids and terpenes, and suggests that their relationship leads to enhanced benefits than if they were used solo.
Whole plant medicine | Studies have shown that the therapeutic benefits of the plant’s individual components are magnified when they stay together, so that the medicinal impact of the whole plant is greater than the sum of its parts.
Psychoactive | Also called psychotropic, is a term for chemical substances that change a person’s mental state by affecting their perceptions, moods, and/or consciousness. Alcohol, caffeine, THC, magic mushrooms, etc.
Extraction | A separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix. In cannabis processing, this is the process of pulling essential oils, cannabinoids and Terpenes from cannabis material.
First-pass Metabolism | The phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of lost drug during the process of absorption, which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.
Indica | The Indica strains originated from a higher altitude and can be found predominantly in countries known for their hash culture such as Morocco, Afghanistan, Nepal and Turkey. These plants are shorter and fuller plants compared to their sativa counterparts. Indicas are known for providing strong analgesic effects.
Pharmaceutical Grade | The US Pharmacopeia (USP) publishes official monographs for certain substances. These monographs include specific assay methods and product specifications to assure identity and potency. Material that is tested by these methods to meet those specifications is then eligible to be called pharmaceutical grade, or USP. Standards for assessing cannabis ingredients and production are limited at this time, so individual organizations strive to ensure that their ingredients and production processes meet the standards of other industries.
Sativa | Sativa strains originated in an area around the equator and can be found in countries like Colombia, Mexico, Thailand and several African Nations. Sativas are generally known for producing more mental, energetic effects than indices.
Transdermal | A route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
WHAT IS THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM?
The endocannabinoid system is a system in your body that helps to regulate essential functions, such as appetite and immune response. Although it plays a key role, it was only recently discovered by scientists who were trying to get answers to a different phenomenon: why cannabis has such a profound impact on the body and brain.
The “endo” part of the name of the system means “within” or “inside the body.” The cannabinoids part comes from the class of phytochemicals scientists were originally investigating. Not only do plants, like cannabis contain these chemical compounds, but so too does the human body, and it uses them to regulate its internal environment.
Although the discovery of the system was a lucky break, scientists quickly realized that it held vast therapeutic potential, and is now the subject of intense research. Scientists already know quite a lot about the system, but efforts continue to understand it at a deeper level, with the hope that eventually drugs can be developed to help patients manage a range of currently intractable disorders.
HOW YOUR ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
The endocannabinoid system hinges on the activity of cannabinoids, molecules that serve as chemical messengers in the body. Cannabinoids in the blood interact with nerve cells, like neurons, helping to regulate all sorts of things, from sleep to mood to pain to memory to appetite. The endocannabinoid system can, therefore, be thought of as one of the mechanisms that the body uses to regulate its internal chemical environment, ensuring that the processes necessary for life continue unabated.
Sometimes, however, the system can begin to malfunction. Generation of too many cannabinoids (or not enough) can produce undesirable changes in the body’s internal environment, kicking it out of homeostasis and leading to some of the issues mentioned above, such as depression and pain.
But how does the endocannabinoid system work? Many of the cells in your body contain cannabinoid receptors – little chemical hooks that attach to the cannabinoid molecules in the blood. These hooks, found primarily on immune and nerve cells, use cannabinoids as signals to do something, whether it’s to produce a particular neurotransmitter (like serotonin) or go and fight a harmful microorganism.
There are two kinds of receptors for cannabinoids, which scientists creatively call C1 and C2. C1 receptors, found in abundance in the brain and spinal cord, have been found to have a profound influence on processes that occur primarily within the nervous system itself. Science shows that when cannabinoids bind to C1 receptors in the amygdala -the part of the brain responsible for the fight or flight mechanism – they help to regulate emotional stability and memory.
C2 receptors are found in greater quantity in the peripheral nervous system and immune cells. Cannabinoids which attach to C2 receptors signal to cells to reduce inflammation, helping to mitigate the body’s natural response to many conditions.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM & CBD
CBD oil doesn’t directly bind to either C1 or C2. Instead, it prevents an enzyme within the body from breaking down the body’s own supply of endocannabinoids. In some people, this enzyme may be overactive, or the body may not be producing enough endocannabinoids to maintain effective homeostasis, and so CBD can help to elevate the number of cannabinoid molecules in circulation.
CBD which stands for “cannabidiol” – a type of cannabinoid – differs significantly from the psychotropic THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol. THC is widely believed to be the chemical in the cannabis genus which produces the high associated with smoking the leaves. Scientists have shown that THC directly binds to both C1 and C2 receptors, producing many profound psychological effects, like hallucinations and delusions. CBD is different because it doesn’t attach directly to the receptors. Instead, it creates the circumstances in which the body can regulate the appropriate level of cannabinoids itself. It is not an exogenous cannabinoid, but rather a way of augmenting the effect of endocannabinoids already present.
THE ROLE OF ANANDAMIDE
Anandamide is the name of one of the body’s most important endocannabinoids. It is believed to be similar to the plant-derived cannabinoid, THC, although the body regulates it in such a way to prevent many of the harmful effects of the exogenous variety.
Anandamide is responsible for a variety of functions in the body, including the experience of pleasure, restful sleep, the ability to think clearly, reproductive health, the sensation of pain, and the ability to pay attention. This chemical is also responsible for feelings of motivation – something that people with depression can struggle with.
THE ROLE OF 2-AG
2-AG is another endocannabinoid. It hasn’t received the same level of attention as anandamide, but it is found in much higher concentrations in the body and may play an equal role – the science is yet to be determined. Scientists show that 2-AG is required for many of the same things as anandamide, including the regulation of memory, movement, mood, and sleep. It’s also believed to play a role in bone health too.
2-AG may be particularly useful for people who want to reduce inflammation and improve digestion. Some people have sufficient 2-AG circulating in their blood but do not have enough receptors to get all of the benefits. Researchers, however, now know that increasing the quantity of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the stomach can increase the number of C2 receptors. Increasing the number of C2 receptors may, therefore, be as simple as giving the lactobacillus more of the food that they like to eat. Lactobacillus eat foods from the allium family of vegetables, such as leeks, onion, and garlic, as well as other vegetables like chicory, kale, spinach, banana, and artichokes.
The body must make all endocannabinoids from sources in the diet. Andamiamid is made from arachidonic acid, a type of fat commonly found in plant foods, like peanut butter. 2-AG is made from arachidonic acid and omega-6 fatty acids. Those who want to ensure that they have the right dietary building blocks for 2-AG should be eating foods like flaxseed, shellfish, and poultry.
WHAT DOES THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM CONTROL?
Given the number of bodily functions in which the endocannabinoid system is believed to play a role, it is quite remarkable that it is a recent discovery. Scientists think the system helps to regulate digestion, reproduction, neuroprotection, inflammation, movement, temperature, pain, sleep, metabolism, and appetite. They have also related it to cardiovascular function, and the development of new brain cells.
Interest in the endocannabinoid system, however, mainly stems from the possible role that it could play in disease prevention.
Scientists think that some of the most common degenerative diseases could relate to disturbances in the endocannabinoid system. Science shows that tumor cells have more cannabinoid receptors than their healthy counterparts. Other conditions, like chronic pain and Parkinson’s, also show dysregulation of the cannabinoid system.
HOW CAN CBD HELP?
CBD oil is derived from hemp, a particular subspecies of cannabis that is naturally low in THC. CBD oil is used by many people who have symptoms that are not amenable to conventional medical interventions. CBD oil is used to regulate the endocannabinoid system to alleviate the following conditions and symptoms:
Lack of appetite. Endocannabinoids form part of the body’s system which controls appetite. Appetite regulation can be a problem for people experiencing severe stress or undergoing treatment for cancer. Normalizing the levels of endocannabinoids in the body with CBD oil can help restore appetite to normal levels.
Pain. Too few endocannabinoids can lead to an excess of inflammation which, in turn, can generate pain. Furthermore, cannabinoids that bind to C1 receptors in the central nervous system can help alleviate pain from causes other than inflammation.
Sleep issues. Sleep disorders are becoming more common, due to exposure to blue light from mobile devices at night, high-stress lifestyles, and a lack of time to get everything done during the day. CBD oil may be able to help with sleep issues by allowing the endocannabinoid system to regulate itself better.
Anxiety. Cannabinoids help to mitigate anxiety by binding to certain regions of the brain, especially the amygdala. CBD oil downregulates enzymes which break down endocannabinoids, leaving more available to bind to target cells, potentially alleviating symptoms of anxiety.
Although CBD oil is derived from hemp, a species of cannabis, it is not the same. Cannabis, when in whole plant form, is a collection of many different chemicals, some of which have psychotropic effects. CBD is an isolate of just one compound. It’s analogous to the spice turmeric, and the supposed active constituent, curcumin. Turmeric spice is just the dried, ground-up root of the turmeric plant, whereas curcumin is specifically the yellow pigment that gives the spice its distinctive color and many of its therapeutic effects.
READY TO GIVE IT A TRY?
CBD oil is a valuable tool which allows people to regulate their endocannabinoid system better. Not only is the emerging science showing that CBD oil is safe, but it’s also useful in dealing with some of the many problems that result when this critical body system doesn’t function correctly. Taking CBD may help improve overall health and wellbeing while acting as an adjunct therapy for those with more severe conditions.
Evoq prides itself on consistently delivering the highest quality CBD products. We stay on top of all of the research and discovery going on today in order to develop the best solutions for people in need.
Containing more than just CBD, such as some minor cannabinoids and terpenes, but typically no THC.
One of the primary cannabinoids found in cannabis. Not associated with the typical psychoactive effects.
Molecules produced by the cannabis plant.
Certificate of Analysis (COA)
A certificate/report provided by a testing facility as verification that certain tests were performed, as well as their results. Often contains potency tests, heavy metals tests, solvent tests, and/or terpene tests.
A consumption method requiring cannabis concentrates that are heated and inhaled. Separate from vaping or smoking.
Cannabinoid molecules produced naturally by the body.
A concept where all of the components (cannabinoids, terpenes, etc) in the plant work together in the body, boosting each other to create a balanced, synergistic effect. Typically lacking in isolate products.
A cannabis product that contains not only CBD, but also some other cannabinoids (usually THC), and terpenes in their naturally occurring quantities.
Any cannabis plant containing less than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis.
An oil that is derived from hemp cannabis. Usually as hemp seed oil, but can be CBD oil.
Hybrid strains contain a mix of sativa and indica genetics. Depending on their lineage, hybrids can take on characteristics from both strain families.
Typically, Indica strains of cannabis are short, bushy plants with wide leaves. Indica plants tend to grow faster and have a higher yield than the sativa variety. Medicine derived from Indica strains have higher CBD and lower THC counts. These plants are known for their calming and relaxing effects.
A cannabis product that contains only CBD.
Sativa strains of cannabis are generally a lighter shade of green and grow tall and thin with narrow leaves. Sativa strains take longer to grow, mature, and require more light. Medicine derived from Sativa strains have lower CBD and higher THC counts. These plants are known for their energizing and uplifting effects.
A consumption method that entails you applying the product under the tongue.
Oils found in all plants that give the plant scent, flavor, and additional benefits.
Traditionally used to describe alcohol based products, but now used to describe even oil-based products. Typically used sublingually or orally.
A product or method that requires you to apply the product to the skin topically. Does not get into bloodstream.
Transfer loss occurs when moving raw extracts from one container to another. When emptying a container, it can be difficult to get the entirety of the contents out. We recommend gently heating distillate jars in a warm water bath to thin the distillate when preparing to transfer it. It may also help to use a tool such as a rubber spatula to scrape the inside of the jar clean.