What is cbd oil good for blood pressure

A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study

1 Division of Medical Sciences & Graduate Entry Medicine, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby, United Kingdom.

Garry D. Tan

2 The NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Saoirse E. O’Sullivan

1 Division of Medical Sciences & Graduate Entry Medicine, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby, United Kingdom.

1 Division of Medical Sciences & Graduate Entry Medicine, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby, United Kingdom.

2 The NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Associated Data

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid used in multiple sclerosis and intractable epilepsies. Preclinical studies show CBD has numerous cardiovascular benefits, including a reduced blood pressure (BP) response to stress. The aim of this study was to investigate if CBD reduces BP in humans.

METHODS. Nine healthy male volunteers were given 600 mg of CBD or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Cardiovascular parameters were monitored using a finometer and laser Doppler.

CONCLUSIONS. This data shows that acute administration of CBD reduces resting BP and the BP increase to stress in humans, associated with increased HR. These hemodynamic changes should be considered for people taking CBD. Further research is required to establish whether CBD has a role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

Introduction

Epidemiological studies have shown a positive relationship between long-term stress and the development of cardiovascular disease (1). Factors like social isolation, low socioeconomic status, depression, stressful family and work life, and anxiety are associated with an increased risk of the development and accelerated progression of existing cardiovascular disease. Current European guidelines on the prevention of cardiovascular disease have emphasized the importance of tackling these factors (2). Mental stress induces myocardial ischaemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease, and this appears to be mediated by adrenal release of catecholamines (3).

Cannabinoids (CBs) are compounds that bind to CB receptors or are structurally similar to compounds that bind to CB receptors. They include endogenously produced compounds (called endocannabinoids), synthetic compounds and phytocannabinoids obtained from the Cannabis sativa plant. There are over 80 known types of phytocannabinoids, the most widely studied of which is Δ 9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC or THC), which is responsible for the psychoactive properties of cannabis (4). The other major phytocannabinoid is cannabidiol (CBD), which does not have psychoactive properties. CBD is currently the focus of much research due to its potential in a number of therapeutic areas, as it has been shown to have antiinflammatory, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anxiolytic, antinausea, and antipsychotic properties (5). A number of preclinical studies have also shown beneficial effects of CBD in a range of disorders of the cardiovascular system (6). A CBD/THC combination (Sativex/Nabiximols, GW Pharmaceuticals) is licensed for the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis, and CBD alone (Epidiolex, GW Pharmaceuticals) has entered an expanded access program in children with intractable epilepsies (Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome). Epidiolex has also received orphan designation status for the treatment of neonatal hypoxia-ischaemic encephalopathy.

CBD has multiple desirable effects on the cardiovascular system. It attenuates high glucose–induced proinflammatory changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells (7) and myocardial dysfunction associated with animal models of diabetes (8), and it preserves endothelial integrity in diabetic retinal microvasculature (9). In vivo administration of CBD before cardiac ischemia and reperfusion also reduces ventricular arrhythmias and infarct size. CBD also causes both acute and time-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated arteries in rats and humans (10–12). There is also evidence from animal studies that CBD modulates the cardiovascular response to stress. Resstel and colleagues (13) showed in rats that i.p. injection of CBD (10 and 20 mg/kg, –30 min) reduced restraint stress–induced cardiovascular response and behavior. Both these effects were blocked by preadministration of WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg), a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5HT1A) antagonist. These effects appear to be mediated centrally and involve the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic structure that modulates neuroendocrine responses to acute stress (14).

Our recent systematic review showed us that there are no dedicated studies in humans to date, to our knowledge, looking at the effect of CBD on either resting cardiovascular measurement or on the responses to stress, with continuous monitoring of CV parameters (15). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether CBD decreases the cardiovascular response to stress after the administration of a single dose of CBD (600 mg) in healthy volunteers, with the hypothesis that blood pressure would be reduced by CBD. Noninvasive cardiovascular measurements were used along with stress tests in the form of mental arithmetic, isometric exercise, and the cold pressor test.

Results

Ten male subjects were recruited, but 1 withdrew for personal reasons. The mean age, weight, and height of the volunteers were 23.7 ± 3.2 years, 77.5 ± 6.4 kg, and 178.6 ± 4.5 cm (mean ± SD).

Effect of CBD on resting cardiovascular parameters.

Changes in resting cardiovascular parameters after a single dose (600 mg) of cannabidiol (CBD) in healthy volunteers (n = 9).

The effects of placebo (closed square) and CBD (open square) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (A), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (B), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) (C), heart rate (HR) (D), stroke volume (SV) (E), cardiac output (CO) (F), ejection time (EJT) (G), total peripheral resistance (TPR) (H), and forearm blood flow (I), measured continuously over 2 hours after drug ingestion, except for forearm blood flow. Forearm blood was measured over a time period of 2 minutes just before the start and in between the stress tests. Dotted line denotes baseline values between the stress tests. Repeated measures 2-way ANOVA; mean ± SEM (*/ + / # P < 0.05, **/ ++ / ## P < 0.01 using Bonferroni’s post-hoc analysis; + and # represent significant change in any parameter over time seen with placebo and CBD, respectively; denotes overall significant difference between 2 treatments).

There was a trend toward reduction in total peripheral resistance (TPR, Figure 1H ) with CBD in the latter half of the resting period, and a significant reduction in forearm skin blood flow before the start of the stress tests ( Figure 1I ; P < 0.01).

Effect of CBD on cardiovascular parameters mental stress.

The individual blood pressure responses of healthy volunteers to the stresses are presented in Figure 2 , showing the average baseline systolic or diastolic blood pressure in the 4 minutes preceeding the stress test, the peak response during stress, and the average recovery response in the 4 minutes after the stress test.

Individual systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses to all stress tests after a single dose (600 mg) of cannabidiol (CBD) or placebo in healthy volunteers (n = 9).

Green color coding shows subjectS who had a reduced (compared with placebo) blood pressure response to stress after taking CBD, and red color coding shows an increased blood pressure response to stress after taking CBD.

Mental stress test.

Cardiovascular response to mental stress after a single dose (600 mg) of cannabidiol (CBD) in healthy volunteers (n = 9).

The effects of placebo (closed square) and CBD (open square) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (A), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (B), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) (C), heart rate (HR) (D), stroke volume (SV) (E), cardiac output (CO) (F), ejection time (EJT) (G), total peripheral resistance (TPR) (H), and forearm blood flow (I), measured continuously just before, during, and after mental arithmetic test (dotted line denotes stress test period), except for forearm blood flow. Measurements for forearm blood flow were made over a 2-minute window just before, during, and after the stress test. Repeated measures 2-way ANOVA; mean ± SEM (+ and # denote significant change in a parameter during the stress period seen with placebo and CBD, respectively). + / # P < 0.05, ++ /# # P < 0.01.

Exercise stress test.

Cardiovascular parameters in response to exercise stress after a single dose (600 mg) of cannabidiol (CBD) in healthy volunteers (n = 9).

The effects of placebo (closed square) and CBD (open square) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (A), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (B), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) (C), heart rate (HR) (D), stroke volume (SV) (E), cardiac output (CO) (F), ejection time (EJT) (G), total peripheral resistance (TPR) (H), and forearm blood flow (I), measured continuously just before, during, and after isometric exercise test (dotted line denotes stress test period), except for forearm blood flow. Measurements for forearm blood flow were made over a 2-minute window just before, during, and after the stress test. Repeated measures 2-way ANOVA; mean ± SEM (*/ + / # P < 0.05; **/ ++ / ## P < 0.01; ***/ ### P < 0.001; ****/ #### P < 0.0001 using Bonferroni post-hoc analysis; + and # denote significant change in a parameter during the stress period seen with placebo and CBD respectively).

Cold stress test.

Cardiovascular response to cold stress after a single dose (600 mg) of cannabidiol (CBD) in healthy volunteers (n = 9).

The effects of placebo (closed square) and CBD (open square) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (A), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (B), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) (C), heart rate (HR) (D), stroke volume (SV) (E), cardiac output (CO) (F), ejection time (EJT) (G), total peripheral resistance (TPR) (H), and forearm blood flow (I), measured continuously just before, during, and after cold pressor test (dotted line denotes stress test period), except for forearm blood flow. Measurements for forearm blood flow were made over a 2-minute window just before, during, and after the stress test. Repeated measures 2-way ANOVA; mean ± SEM (*/ + / # P < 0.05, **/ ++ P < 0.01, ***/ +++ P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001 using Bonferroni post-hoc analysis; + and # denote significant change in a parameter during the stress period seen with placebo and CBD, respectively).

Looking at the individual response to the cold pressor test, 8 of 9 subjects had a lower SBP during the cold stress and in the recovery period after taking CBD ( Figure 2 ). Six of 9 subjects had a lower DBP during the cold pressor, and 7 of 9 subject had a lower DBP in the recovery period after taking CBD ( Figure 2 ).

Discussion

Based on preclinical evidence, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that CBD would reduce the cardiovascular response to stress in healthy volunteers. We found that resting blood pressure was lower after subjects had taken CBD and that CBD blunted the blood pressure response to stress, particularly in the pre- and poststress periods. Post-hoc analysis showed an overall trend of lower SBP, MAP, DBP, SV, TPR, forearm skin blood flow, and left ventricular EJT and a higher HR in subjects who had taken CBD. These hemodynamic changes should be considered for people taking CBD and suggest that further research is warranted to establish whether CBD has any role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

We have shown for the first time that to our knowledge that, in humans, acute administration of CBD reduces resting blood pressure, with a lower stroke volume and a higher heart rate. This response may be secondary to the known anxiolytic properties of CBD (16) and may account for the lack of anticipatory rise in blood pressure seen with placebo. These findings are in contrast to previous studies in humans, where CBD at the same dose did not affect baseline cardiovascular parameters (17–19), although changes in the cardiovascular system were not the primary outcome of these studies. In the present study, CV parameters were measured continuously, while in previous studies, monitoring for SBP, DBP, and HR were performed manually at only 1, 2, or 3 hours after drug delivery. Additionally, our subjects were cannabis naive, while the subjects of other studies had used cannabis in the past. Since tolerance may develop to the hemodynamic response to CBs in humans, this may explain the differences between studies.

THC, the major psychoactive component of cannabis, is known to cause tachycardia and orthostatic hypotension in humans (20), a hemodynamic response similar to that observed to CBD in the present study. THC is a partial agonist at both CB1 and CB2 receptors (21), and the effects of THC on heart rate are mediated through CB1 receptors (20). CBD does not bind with any great affinity to CB1, but it can interact indirectly by augmenting CB1 receptors’ constitutional activity or endocannabinoid tone, the so called indirect agonism (22). We recently showed that CBD also causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated human mesenteric arteries through CB1 activation (11). Therefore, it is possible that the changes in hemodynamics brought about by CBD are mediated through CB1.

CBD may cause sympathoinhibition (through CB1 or some other mechanism), thereby preventing an increase in blood pressure and cardiac output, causing a compensatory rise in heart rate to maintain cardiac output. Indeed, the changes in SBP preceded any changes in HR. Another possibility is that CBD inhibits cardiac vagal tone, thereby increasing heart rate (despite any potential sympathoinhibition). A recent study in male Sprague-Dawley rats showed that GPR18 activation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) by abnormal CBD (Abn-CBD) resulted in reduced blood pressure and increased heart rate (23) (similar to that observed in the present study). The same study showed that pretreatment with atropine and propranolol fully abrogated the HR response, suggesting a role for the autonomic nervous system. CBD is a weak partial agonist at GPR18 (24).

Effect of CBD on cardiovascular parameters in response to mental stress.

Mental arithmetic has been shown to cause a rise in MAP and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) (25) and vasodilatation in forearm skeletal muscle (26). In our study, none of the cardiovascular parameters other than HR, DBP, and SV were affected, suggesting that the level of stress to this test was minimal. This could be because of the added visual stimulus of a computer screen, which would have helped volunteers perform the task. Overall, there was trend for lower SBP, DBP, MAP, SV, TPR, and forearm skin blood flow in subjects who had taken CBD, particularly in the pre– and post–stress test periods. Like resting cardiovascular parameters, these changes may indicate anxiolytic effects of CBD and/or generalized sympathoinhibition.

Effect of CBD on cardiovascular parameters in response to exercise stress.

Isometric exercise produces a pressor response, via sympathoexcitation, originating in the contracting muscle and relayed to the RVLM via the nucleus of solitary tract. The end result is a rise in heart rate and cardiac output and vasoconstriction in nonexercising organs (27–29). There is increased skeletal muscle blood flow in the nonexercising limb, which is sensitive to atropine and propranolol (30). A similar response was seen in our study, where isometric exercise caused a significant rise in SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR and an increase in forearm blood flow, although this was significant in the placebo group only. Subjects who had taken CBD had reduced blood pressure during the exercise stress test, and this was most pronounced in the pre- and posttest period. Before the exercise stress, HR was higher and SV lower in volunteers when they had taken CBD, and this trend continued throughout exercise stress and in the poststress period. There was also a significant reduction in EJT with CBD, which represents a reciprocal change to increased HR. The rise in cutaneous blood flow was only seen with placebo and not with CBD, possibly suggesting reduced β2 adrenergic–mediated vasodilatation, which could be a result of general sympathoinhibition or a specific effect at the β2 adrenoceptors. The tissue distribution of β2 adrenoceptors and CB1 receptors overlaps in many tissues, including in the cardiovascular system (31). At the cellular level, a complex physical and functional interaction between these 2 receptors has been demonstrated; there is evidence of cointernalization of β2 adrenoceptors with CB1 receptors, leading to desensitisation of β2 adrenoceptors (31).

Effect of CBD on cardiovascular parameters in response to cold stress.

Cold stress causes intense sympathoexcitation, producing a tachycardic and pressor response, and an increase in MSNA (32, 33). The pressor response is due to an initial rise in CO, in response to increased HR and a later increase in MSNA, causing vasoconstriction. Both MAP and TPR show a linear correlation with MSNA during cold stress (34). In our study, cold stress produced a pressor response in both groups, but, interestingly, while SBP and MAP continued to rise with placebo throughout the test period, the pressor response to cold was blunted in subjects who had taken CBD, and SBP and MAP were significantly lower. In keeping with this, TPR was lower with CBD than placebo, suggesting a possible inhibition of sympathetic outflow. This could also be due to analgesic properties of CBD (35), reducing cold stress and therefore minimizing the sympathetic response (also explaining why the cold pressor test was affected more by CBD than the exercise test). In the animal study of Resstel and colleagues (13), the authors suggested that the modulation of cardiovascular response was most likely secondary to attenuation of emotional response to stress. However, given our findings that CBD produced similar changes in cardiovascular parameters — though to a variable degree — during rest and stress, this may indicate that CBD also has direct cardiovascular effects.

Safety and tolerance.

CBD was well tolerated, and there were no adverse events on the day of stress tests. None of the subjects reported any adverse events over the following week.

Conclusion.

Our data show that a single dose of CBD reduces resting blood pressure and the blood pressure response to stress, particularly cold stress, and especially in the post-test periods. This may reflect the anxiolytic and analgesic effects of CBD, as well as any potential direct cardiovascular effects. CBD also affected cardiac parameters but without affecting cardiac output. Giving the increasing use of CBD as a medicinal product, these hemodynamic changes should be considered for people taking CBD. Further research is also required to establish whether CBD has any role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders such as a hypertension.

Methods

Study design.

The study was a randomized, crossover design with each subject given CBD (BN: K12067A) or placebo (both gifts from GW Pharmaceuticals) in a capsule in a double-blind fashion, with a minimum time interval of at least 48 hours (range 3–16 days), taking place at the Division of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Royal Derby Hospital. Allocation was decided by a coin toss, and block randomization was employed by S.E. O’Sullivan, who assigned participants. K.A. Jadoon carried out all study visits, and data analysis was blinded.

During an initial visit, subjects were familiarized with the stress tests and with noninvasive cardiovascular (CVS) monitoring, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) was done to rule out any preexisting cardiac conditions. Subjects were advised to fast overnight, to avoid beverages containing caffeine or alcohol, and to avoid strenuous exercise for 24 hours before each of the 2 study visits. Two hours after CBD/placebo was administered, subjects performed various stress tests (36). Noninvasive cardiovascular monitoring using Finometer and laser Doppler flowmetry was carried out during the 2 hours to assess changes in baseline parameters and during the stress test periods.

Visit days.

Upon arrival, subjects were rested for 10–15 minutes, and their baseline blood pressure and heart rate were recorded using a digital blood pressure (BP) monitor. Participants were given a standardized breakfast, and 15 minutes later, they were given either oral CBD (600 mg) or placebo in a double-blind fashion. This is a dose known to cause anxiolytic effects in humans and is comparable with what is used clinically (19, 37–39). Study medication consisted of capsules containing either 100 mg of CBD or excipients, which were a gift from GW Pharmaceuticals. There was no difference between the 2 formulations in color, taste, or smell.

Two hours afterward, subjects were asked to perform the stress tests (36). Timing of the tests was chosen to coincide with peak plasma levels for CBD (18). All the experiments were performed in a sitting position under ambient temperature conditions. Maximum voluntary contraction for the isometric hand grip test was assessed for each subject prior to administering study medication.

After administration of CBD or placebo, subjects remained seated, either doing nothing, reading, or using a computer. During this time, subjects were connected to a calibrated Finometer (Finapres Medical Systems), which uses a finger-clamp method to detect beat-to-beat changes in digital arterial diameter using an infrared photoplethysmograph (40). The Finometer gives a continuous signal of beat-to-beat changes in blood pressure and blood flow, and it uses this signal to derive other parameters, including systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure; interbeat interval; heart rate and left ventricular ejection time; stroke volume; cardiac output; and systemic peripheral resistance. Baseline cardiovascular data was recorded for 2 hours following administration of CBD or placebo. Forearm blood flow was measured using a calibrated laser Doppler flowmeter (Perimed) (41). For each recording, 5 images of microcirculation were taken, over an area 19 mm × 19 mm, using the upper third of the left forearm under high resolution. After 2 hours, subjects underwent the cardiovascular stress tests in the following order: mental arithmetic, isometric exercise, and cold pressor test.

The mental arithmetic test consisted of calculating a sum every 2 second for 2 minutes. Subjects were seated in front of a computer screen, and a PowerPoint presentation delivered a slide with a simple mathematical sum of a 3-digit number minus a smaller number (e.g., 317 – 9, 212 – 11, 185 – 7) every 2 seconds; the subject had to give the answer verbally. In the isometric exercise stress test, using a dynamometer, handgrip was maintained at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 2 min. For the cold pressor test, subjects immersed their left foot (up to ankle) in ice slush (temperature 4°C–6°C) for 2 minutes. Cardiovascular parameters were measured continuously using the Finometer, while skin blood flow measurements were taken just before, during, and 5 minutes after each test. Each stress test lasted for 2 minutes, and there was a recovery period of at least 10 minutes.

Statistics.

Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA to determine the effect of treatment and time on different variables using GraphPad PRISM version 6.02. Level of significance was set at α = 0.05 and values presented as mean ± SEM. Sidak’s post-hoc test was used to see treatment affect at various time points. Data were not unblinded until after statistical analysis.

Study approval.

Ten healthy young male volunteers, mean age 24 years (range 19–29), with no underlying cardiovascular or metabolic disorders, were recruited for this study, which was approved by the University of Nottingham Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee (study reference E18102012). Written informed consent was obtained according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Exclusion criteria included any significant cardiovascular or metabolic disorder or use of any medication. All the volunteers were nonsmokers and had taken no prescribed or over-the-counter medication within a week prior to randomization. No volunteers had ever used cannabis.

Author contributions

KAJ helped with study design, researched data, wrote the manuscript, and reviewed/edited the manuscript. GDT reviewed/edited the manuscript. SEO was involved in study design and reviewed/edited the manuscript.

Supplementary Material

Acknowledgments

GT is supported by the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre Programme. The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, or the Department of Health.

Footnotes

Conflict of interest: GW Pharma supplied the cannabidiol (CBD) and placebo but did not fund the study.

Reference information:JCI Insight. 2017;2(11):e93760. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.93760.

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8 Best CBD Oils for High Blood Pressure

This article contains affiliate links to products. We may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a serious medical condition that can lead to heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. If you have high blood pressure, it’s important to take steps to lower your blood pressure and improve your health.

One way to do this is by using CBD oil. CBD oil has been shown to help lower blood pressure and improve heart health. Here are the eight best CBD oils for high blood pressure.

7. Charlotte’s Web

High blood pressure can be debilitating to live with. It puts unnecessary strain on the heart and the body’s other muscles. This often leads to stiffening of the arteries, which can lead to heart attack or stroke if not addressed immediately. Fortunately, CBD oil comes in to save the day.

What is high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is a type of chronic medical condition in which the force of blood pumping through your arteries is too high. This puts an excess burden on your heart and increases the risk for various health problems.

What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?

The most common symptoms may include:

● Frequent, sharp chest pain that may extend to your neck, jaw, back or stomach.

● Shortness of breath

● Nausea and vomiting

● Heart palpitations (feel like your heart is skipping beats)

You may also experience pain in your arms or legs when resting or exercising. This is a sign of other serious medical problems and should be checked by a doctor as soon as possible.

The cause of high blood pressure is usually unknown and can include:

● High salt intake or other conditions that increase sodium retention in your body, such as kidney disease or hormonal problems like Cushing’s syndrome.

● Stress and anxiety

● Lack of exercise and a sedentary lifestyle

● Smoking and alcohol use

● Family history of hypertension

How is high blood pressure diagnosed?

High blood pressure can be diagnosed with an at-home blood pressure test that you can do yourself. These are inexpensive and easy to use, but it’s important to remember that this is just a quick tool to help you figure out if you should talk to a doctor. If your blood pressure is high, it’s important to have yourself checked by a professional as soon as possible.

What is CBD?

CBD is an abbreviation for cannabidiol, a compound found in marijuana plants along with its psychoactive counterpart, THC. CBD oils are popularly utilized by medical patients for several purposes, one of which is helping reduce blood pressure levels naturally through its natural effects on the body.

What are CBD’s Effects on Blood Pressure?

CBD acts as a vasodilator. This basically means that it works to expand the diameter of arteries, allowing the heart to work less while still maintaining an appropriate blood pressure level.

What does CBD oil do to your blood pressure?

CBD, when consumed in the form of oils or tinctures with high concentrations, works directly on the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is responsible for regulating blood pressure levels.

When CBD enters the body, it stimulates CB-1 cannabinoid receptors which are found throughout the body. This stimulates vasodilation, allowing for more blood flow and circulation, lowering high blood pressure levels.

Is CBD Oil Safe?

CBD is considered completely safe to use with no negative side effects by most users of the product. However, only buy from a reputable brand and make sure you consume it in small doses prior to using it. This way you can monitor your body’s reaction to CBD, spotting anything unusual for future reference.

When should I take CBD oil to lower my blood pressure?

You can use CBD oil safely at any time to help control your blood pressure. However, it’s recommended that you opt for this method of treatment only if the other options available, such as over-the-counter medication or prescription drugs, have proven ineffective or caused complications during treatment.

If you are currently taking medication for high blood pressure, consult with your doctor before using CBD oil as a replacement treatment or in conjunction with medication.

You can opt to use CBD oils sublingually by applying them under the tongue. This allows your body to absorb CBD faster and more easily than if you were to consume it.

In what forms can I take CBD Oil?

CBD oil is available in a variety of different product forms, some of which include:

Tinctures

These come in small bottles and are usually mixed with glycerin or alcohol before being applied under the tongue using a dropper for faster absorption into the body.

Creams

These are often used on top of skin irritations and are applied directly to the skin for fast absorption. These topical CBD oil creams aren’t useful for high blood pressure, as the problem is internal. Topical CBD creams help with surface or nerve level pain and ailments easier than other methods of CBD oil.

Suppositories

These are often used by people who have problems swallowing pills or wish to avoid an unpleasant taste while taking CBD oil orally. These tend to be more effective on a cellular level, therefore allowing them to work faster against blood pressure disorders.

How much CBD oil should I take to regulate my blood pressure levels?

The answer will depend on a variety of factors including your weight and the severity of your high blood pressure. These factors, combined with the type and concentration of CBD you’re using, will determine how much CBD oil is needed for you to see results.

It’s best to start with a smaller dose, then gradually increase it over time until you see the desired effects or are satisfied with what works best for your body’s needs.

The Criteria We Used to Determine The 8 Best CBD Oils for High Blood Pressure

Just to help you understand how we concluded that these are the best CBD oils for high blood pressure, we wanted to share what criteria we considered for this list:

Is the CBD Oil from a trustworthy manufacturer?

Popular brands that have been in business for a while have proven themselves to be reliable and trustworthy. These manufacturers take great care when sourcing their products, creating safe and beautiful packaging, and strictly testing all of their products before going on sale.

Are the CBD oils lab tested?

Any CBD oils we recommend on this list will be lab tested and third-party verified to ensure the highest quality CBD oils available. This means you can rest easy knowing that what you’re using is safe for your body and manufactured responsibly, without any harmful chemicals or toxins that could cause harm in the long run.

Are high standards of the CBD Oil Manufacturer enforced?

To ensure the highest quality CBD oils on the market, manufacturers must adhere to strict criteria that is enforced by independent laboratories. This includes testing for any contaminants or toxins that could be harmful for human health and operating responsibly according to state regulations.

Are the CBD oils free of any unwanted ingredients or substances?

CBD oils that are manufactured responsibly will be completely free of additives and allergens. We also considered what type of concentration was available for each product. This is because different concentrations can work differently depending on the person using them and the intended purpose.

We wanted to be sure that the CBD oils on this list are high quality and reliable, so we made sure to include companies that have earned trust in the industry by providing safe products.

How well will it work for my intended purpose?

Each product may vary depending on what you’re wanting to use them for. For example, if you’re wanting to use CBD oil for pain or to lower your blood pressure, then it’s best to find a concentration that works well with the condition you’re attempting to treat.

How does the taste of the product compare to other CBD oils?

As each person has different tastes in what they enjoy using, one thing you should consider is if the CBD oil tastes good before purchasing it. Some CBD oils may be more potent than others and also may taste more like you’d expect it to, such as an earthy taste which is more common with hemp-based products.

Do they have a money back guarantee?

To ensure that customers are getting high-quality CBD oil, manufacturers should offer a guarantee that’s easy to follow. Whether it involves returning the product or getting your money back, you can trust that these companies will do what they can to ensure your satisfaction.

8 Best CBD Oils for High Blood Pressure

Choosing the best CBD oil for high blood pressure may not be as easy as one would like. There are many different brands out there, all boasting their own unique benefits and claims.

We’ve taken the time to do the research for you and provide you with this list of high-quality CBD oils that can help lower blood pressure levels without any negative effects.

1. Penguin CBD

Image courtesy Penguin CBD

Looking for a CBD oil that is grown and made in the USA? Look no further than Penguin CBD. Their oil is extracted from Oregon-grown hemp, making it a safe and reliable choice. Plus, their broad-spectrum extract ensures you get all the possible benefits of CBD.

2. Everest

Image courtesy Everest.

Achieve the ultimate summit of CBD satisfaction with Everest. Their full-spectrum CBD oil is rich in terpenes and cannabinoids, providing a well-rounded experience and relief from a variety of conditions. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced mountaineer, their CBD oil will take you to new heights.

3. Verma Farms

Image courtesy Verma Farms

Looking for a pure and organic CBD brand? Look no further than Verma Farms. Our cannabis plants are grown without pesticides or GMOs, and all of our formulas are THC-free and non-toxic. Whether you’re looking for oils, creams, gummies, or capsules, Verma Farms has you covered.

4. R+R Medicinals

R+R Medicinals is quickly becoming one of the most trusted and popular CBD brands by proving one thing – they make the CBD that works. Using supercritical CO2 extraction on their proprietary Cherry strain of USDA Certified Organic hemp, they yield an unparalleled profile of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other phytonutrients in their products that translate into guaranteed performance. Their 1000mg Fresh Mint Tincture is their best seller and of incredible value for a Full-Spectrum product at $46.99. R+R boasts impressive levels of CBD, CBG, CBC, CBN, CBL, and more in their products so you can truly feel the entourage effect. They also publish third party certificates of analysis on their site for every batch they make. In addition to being USDA Organic Certified, they are also US Hemp Authority Certified, and they have hundreds of 5-star ratings on Google, so you can take comfort in knowing they do things with the highest standards of safety and quality in mind.

5.Spruce

Image courtesy Spruce

Add Spruce CBD to your daily routine for a more balanced life. This pure, organic CBD oil is lab-grade and helps support the health of both you and your furry friend. With no added flavors, this oil is perfect for those who want the therapeutic benefits of CBD with nothing else getting in the way.

6.Joy Organics

Image courtesy Joy Organics

Are you looking for a CBD oil that is high in quality and potency? Look no further than Joy Organics. Their products are organic and lab-grade, and they strive for no-frills, just quality. If you’re looking for an unflavored or peppermint CBD oil, Joy Organics is the perfect choice.

7.Charlotte’s Web

Image courtesy Charlotte’s Web

Charlotte’s Web offers a variety of potencies to find the perfect CBD oil for you. Whether you’re new to CBD or have experience, they have a product that will work for you. Gummies and capsules provide 10-25 mg per serving while topicals range from 100-750 mg per container.

8.Aspen Green

Image courtesy Aspen Green

Looking for an intense high? Aspen Green has you covered with their powerful full-spectrum products. Flavorful and potent, these products are sure to give you the lift you need. Whether you’re looking for discontinued items or reformulated strains, Aspen Green is the place to go.

What does the research say about CBD oils for high blood pressure?

CBD has been known to reduce stress and anxiety, which plays a huge role in high blood pressure. Research has also proven CBD to be an anti-inflammatory agent, which makes it the perfect treatment for hypertension.

In fact, evidence suggests that CBD may even help with cholesterol reduction and atherosclerosis!

How do I use CBD oil for high blood pressure?

There are a number of ways you can take CBD oils depending on what works best for you. They can be taken orally, sublingually, or even through aromatherapy.

What are the side effects of CBD oils for high blood pressure?

Since CBD is a natural and organic product, there aren’t many, if any, side effects. A small percentage of people experience drowsiness or tiredness after taking CBD oil which can be remedied by taking another dose before bed or moving to a lower potency.

What should I consider before taking CBD oils for high blood pressure?

If you are considering adding CBD oil to your daily routine to help treat high blood pressure, it is important to consult with your primary care physician first. CBD is still relatively new to the market, so it’s important to make sure it will not interact with any medications you are currently taking.

Additionally, start with a low dosage of CBD oil and increase gradually until you find the amount that works best for you. Some people experience a “high” feeling with full-spectrum CBD oils, so it’s important to start slowly until you know how the oil will affect you.

Why Buy CBD Oils Online?

There are many reasons why buying CBD oils online is beneficial compared to buying in-person.

First, you don’t have to drive around town looking for the best CBD oils on the market. Instead, just hop online and do some research to find what works best for you.

Additionally, you can easily compare prices and shop around to find the right CBD oil for you. All in all, shopping online is a great option when it comes to buying CBD oils because it allows the freedom to shop without salespeople being too pushy, or someone seeing you venture inside those shops that sell CBD oils for high blood pressure.

Why is CBD Oil good for high blood pressure?

CBD oil is a promising new treatment for high blood pressure. So far, the research shows that it can be effective in some people and not others – but we’re still waiting on more studies before making any official conclusions about its usefulness!

In order to help reduce your high blood pressure, it’s important to start a CBD oil regimen as well as make diet and lifestyle changes. Although everyone is different, a good starting dosage for most is around 10mg-50mg and you can slowly increase the dosage until you find what works best for you.

Here are some conclusions that research has come to regarding the use of CBD oils for high blood pressure:

● CBD has been shown to help reduce blood pressure in mice.

● CBD oils can be used to treat anxiety, which is a huge contributor to high blood pressure.

● CBD oils are anti-inflammatory, which means they can help hypertension by reducing inflammation.

Other Things You Should Know About High Blood Pressure:

High blood pressure is a common disorder that affects around 1 in 3 adults. When you have high blood pressure, your heart is working too hard and your arteries are under too much strain from the additional pressure which can lead to issues like heart attack, stroke, kidney damage, or blindness.

There are many risk factors for high blood pressure such as family history, obesity, tobacco use, lack of physical activity, and high sodium intake.

It’s important to manage these risk factors in order to reduce your chance of developing hypertension or worsening your blood pressure if you already have it.

Fortunately, with the help of CBD oils for high blood pressure along with making healthy lifestyle changes – you can live a longer and better life!

What are the best CBD oils for high blood pressure?

Purchasing CBD oils online is an excellent way to find whatever benefits you most. We put together a list of our favorites based on what current research has found, which is that full-spectrum CBD oil is most effective at treating high blood pressure.

8 Best CBD Oils for High Blood Pressure

7. Charlotte’s Web

How to effectively use CBD oils for high blood pressure?

Any CBD oils that are full-spectrum will be your best bet because they contain the most cannabinoids and terpenes: things like THC, caryophyllene, and limonene.

Start with a low dosage of around 10 mg and slowly increase to find what works best for you. Everyone is different and it’s important to take into account all other medications you’re taking, your weight, age, gender, and current health.

Some people experience an “entourage effect” which means the cannabinoids work better together than they do on their own. You can take CBD oils orally or apply them topically. For high blood pressure, it is typically dosed as 10 mg-50 mg orally or topically twice a day.

CBD oil is a promising new treatment for high blood pressure. So far, the research shows that it can be effective in some people and not others. As always, discuss this option of using CBD oils for high blood pressure with your doctor before buying any of the best CBD oils for high blood pressure on our list.

Lastly, in order to help reduce your high blood pressure, it’s important to start a CBD oil regimen as well as make diet and lifestyle changes. Although everyone is different, a good starting dosage for most is around 10 mg-50 mg and you can slowly increase the dosage until you find what works best for you.

CBD Oil for High Blood Pressure in 2022

Hypertension is a serious condition affecting 33% of US adults above the age of 20. This figure is twice as high for people in their mid-60s and over.

It goes without saying that high blood pressure is becoming a pandemic, which is only going to get worse if people continue to live unhealthy lives full of stress, processed food, and low physical activity.

If you’re reading this, chances are that you, too, have been diagnosed with high blood pressure. The good news is that hypertension doesn’t strike immediately like other serious conditions — so the sooner you act, the better.

While there’s already a large body of scientific research into hypertension, there are no surefire methods that would work for every individual. But thanks to the rise of natural alternatives like CBD oil, many people now assume that cannabis-based products could provide relief from high blood pressure in modern society.

If you’re wondering whether you can use CBD oil for high blood pressure, this article is for you. Below you’ll find my most trusted brands that sell high-quality CBD oil. I’m also going to cover the latest research highlights regarding the effects of CBD on blood pressure.

Best CBD Oils for High Blood Pressure

If you’ve been thinking about CBD oil as your potential hypertension treatment, you’ve probably come across many different brands and products.

The choice may be overwhelming for new consumers, but the key to success is to find a trusted manufacturer that will use organic hemp plants and butane-free extraction methods. The company of your choice should also post lab reports for each product it sells as proof of quality.

All that said, I trust these three brands enough to recommend them for anyone looking for a natural way to improve their quality of life.

1. Royal CBD

Get 15% off all Royal CBD products. Use code “CFAH” at checkout.

  • Royal CBD uses Colorado-grown organic hemp
  • The company makes its products using a supercritical CO2 extraction.
  • They offer both full-spectrum and isolate-based products
  • The oil is very potent — up to 83.3 mg in each mL
  • Every batch of product has been tested for potency and purity in a third-party laboratory
  • No vape oils available yet
  • These products are more expensive than other brands, but that’s justified by the quality of ingredients
My Thoughts on Royal CBD:

Launched in 2018 by a group of cannabis aficionados, Royal CBD is a premium manufacturer of hemp-derived CBD products. The company’s philosophy revolves around simplicity and the quality of ingredients. Their CBD oil is sourced from organic hemp grown by American farmers who prefer to cultivate their crops without pesticides and chemical fertilizers.

Royal CBD offers CBD in its most common forms, including sublingual drops, capsules, and edibles. All of their products are extracted using pressurized CO2, a technique that yields clean and potent extracts.

The Royal CBD oil comes in three different strengths:

It’s a full-spectrum extract, so you get CBD along with other cannabinoids and terpenes naturally occurring in hemp. Experts believe full-spectrum extracts to be more effective in certain conditions when compared to isolated CBD.

Royal CBD regularly tests its products in a 3rd-party laboratory for their cannabinoid profiles and to make sure they are free of contaminants.

If you dislike the taste of natural CBD oil, you may want to try Royal CBD capsules. These are quite potent, too, as each softgel carries 25 mg.

2. Gold Bee (Best Organic CBD Oil)

Pros:
  • Unique product selection
  • Gold Bee uses non-GMO, Colorado-grown hemp
  • The oil contains full-spectrum CBD
  • The company’s products are extracted with CO2
  • You’re getting up tp to 1200 mg of CBD per bottle
  • The oil is sweetened with organic honey
  • Third-party lab tested for potency and purity
Cons:
  • No high-strength oils
  • Not available in-store
What I Like About Gold Bee:

Gold Bee was launched in 2019 in California by a group of cannabis enthusiasts who earlier operated on the superfoods market. Gold Bee offers an unusual product line up, including full-spectrum honey-sweetened CBD oil and CBD-infused honey sticks and gummies. All Gold Bee’s products are made from organic hemp and tested for potency and purity in a third-party laboratory.

I couldn’t help but try the 1200 mg kiwi-flavored CBD oil as I was curious about the taste of full-spectrum CBD that is sweetened with organic honey. The flavor was spot-on, but what surprised me the most was the very calming effect it had on my body. This was unusual for me because I’ve tried some higher-potency oils in my life and the stress-relieving effects weren’t as good as with this brand.

If you’re looking for a risk-free way to check out Gold Bee’s products, you can use its 30-day money-back guarantee and get a full refund for your order if you’re not satisfied with the results.

3. CBDPure

  • CBDPure makes full-spectrum CBD oil
  • The company uses CO2 for extraction
  • All products are sent to a 3rd-party laboratory for a content analysis
  • You can send your order back for a full refund within 90 days as part of CBDPure’s 100% Satisfaction Guaranteed program
  • Narrow product selection
  • Lower potency than Royal CBD
My Thoughts on CBDPure:

One thing I particularly appreciate about CBDPure is the company’s transparency. CBDPure openly shares every detail of their activity, from sourcing to packaging. They also provide a Certificate of Analysis for each batch of their oils and capsules.

CBDPure has a modest product selection, offering only full-spectrum oil drops and softgel capsules. The oil is less potent than other brands in this ranking, but the company sells it in larger bottles, so if you benefit from low doses, you may get supplied for a couple of months.

For stronger effects, you may try CBDPure’s softgels which carry 25 mg of CBD per capsule. And, if you end up unsatisfied with your product, you can send the order back within 90 days and receive a full refund.

4. CBDistillery

  • CBDistillery uses locally grown hemp
  • The company’s products are available as full-spectrum or isolate
  • Impressive product selection
  • Each batch is tested in a 3rd-party lab for potency and purity
  • CBDistillery is one of the most affordable brands on the market
  • The hemp used by CBDistillery isn’t organic
  • The CBD oil is available only in the unflavored option
My Thoughts on CBDistillery:

CBDistillery is one of the industry’s trailblazers. This company has been offering high-quality CBD oil products for over 5 years now on top of providing education for its customers under the #CBDMOVEMENT hashtag.

CBDistillery has plenty of different CBD products in its collection, from sublingual drops to capsules, topicals, gummies, and vapes. The company’s CBD oil comes as full-spectrum or CBD isolate.

These oils are available in two different sizes — 15 mL and 30 mL. The potency of the 15 mL bottle ranges between 150–1,000 mg of CBD, whereas the 30 mL bottle offers 2,500–5,000 mg.

With such a broad potency range, CBDistillery oil is good for both new consumers and seasoned users alike. The only disadvantage of the company’s product lineup is that they’re not made with organic hemp.

However, once you consider the price of CBDistillery products, you’ll understand why I’ve decided to choose this brand as my third favorite. CBDistillery might not sell the best CBD oil on the market, but they definitely offer the best CBD oil in this price range.

What Is High Blood Pressure (aka Hypertension)?

Blood pressure is measured by the amount of pressure applied by blood flow onto the internal system of arteries in the human body.

This pressure tends to go up and down throughout the day as your body reacts to environmental, physical, and emotional stimuli.

Although the changes in blood pressure can be frequent, there’s a specific range the pressure needs to stay within in order to maintain optimal health.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that about one-third of American adults have blood pressure that consistently exceeds the normal range. This condition of consistently high blood pressure is known as hypertension — it can have a series of negative consequences on your health.

Hypertension is the most common cause of cardiovascular disease. As noted by the CDC, high blood pressure was responsible for 410,000 deaths in 2014 alone. In addition, hypertension and its collateral damage are estimated to cost Americans up to $50 billion each year.

What Are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure?

How do you know if you have hypertension?

The problem with this condition is that it may not give you as many negative symptoms as other diseases, so sometimes, it may be extremely difficult to diagnose hypertension at home.

If you want to prevent hypertension or detect it in its infancy, you should always schedule regular appointments with your physician to monitor blood pressure.

The symptoms below indicate that you need to make an appointment at your local medical center as soon as possible:

  • Frequent, severe headaches
  • Permanent fatigue
  • Problems with vision
  • Changes in heartbeat

How Is Hypertension Treated?

As with any chronic condition, pharmaceuticals are the treatment of choice for most people. As much as I agree that they pull blood pressure numbers back into the normal range, I’m not a fan of prescription or OTC medications because these come with their own set of side-effects.

Some of them may even worsen your condition because they can cause muscle weakness, fatigue, lightheadedness, and electrolyte deficiencies.

As a matter of fact, one of the most important measures you can take to lower blood pressure is to reach the cause of your hypertension. You need to incorporate some radical lifestyle changes. Diet, exercise, and stress management can contribute to lower blood pressure and, at the same time, prevent the side effects of hypertension.

These changes, require time and commitment to receive any benefits.

How Could CBD Lower Blood Pressure?

Research shows that supplementation with CBD may be effective in reducing blood pressure in healthy adults, thus decrease the risk of atrial fibrillation. CBD may also mitigate negative changes in the pressure caused by various triggers.

This may mean a lot for hypertension patients who are in search of alternative ways to manage their symptoms and bring their blood pressure back to the normal range.

There haven’t been many trials that would test the effectiveness of CBD in chronic hypertension, so while the current findings are promising, CBD still isn’t an approved form of hypertension treatment.

Scientific Research on CBD and Blood Pressure

If you’re interested in using CBD oil for high blood pressure, read on to explore the latest scientific findings.

1. CBD May Inhibit Stress-Induced Blood Pressure Changes

In a 2019 study, Brazilian researchers investigated the effects of several different CBD doses on anxiety levels caused by public speaking.

They tested the following dosages:

Anxiety can be measured with telltale signs such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. The data from this study showed that the medium dose of CBD produced a notably improved stress response to giving a speech, giving us an indirect look at the effects of CBD on blood pressure.

The study can also serve as a reference point for drafting out dosage guidelines for CBD oil and hypertension.

2. CBD Acts as a Vasodilator

As noted in a 2017 randomized crossover study, a single dose of cannabidiol reduced blood pressure in healthy subjects, specifically in male adults.

Starting from their regular blood pressure range, the participants were asked to engage with two different types of stressors — exercise and cold. These stressors are known to cause a vivid increase in blood pressure.

While the subjects who took CBD prior to exposure to these stressors still experienced a rise in blood pressure, it was much lower than that shown by the placebo group.

The researchers concluded that CBD may be an effective compound in stress management by lessening the body’s reaction to various stressors and thus potentially reducing the risk of side effects caused by hypertension.

3. CBD May Lower Heart Rate

In a 2009 study, rats were put under a stressful situation that caused their blood pressure and heart rate to increase. A single dose of CBD lowered both their blood pressure and heart rate. While more human research is needed to make conclusive claims, CBD may have the potential to lower heart rate under stress.

However, a 2017 review of 25 studies found that there’s no link between CBD and reduced heart rate under non-stressful conditions.

Potential Risks of Using CBD Oil for High Blood Pressure

While the early findings on the effects of CBD for high blood pressure are optimistic, people who already use certain medications for hypertension should absolutely consult with their doctor before buying any CBD product.

That’s because CBD oil can interact with these medications and cause blood pressure to drop too low — and too low isn’t good either.

People using CBD oil derived from marijuana may experience an acute, dose-dependent increase in blood pressure and heart rate shortly after consumption, but that’s caused by the THC in those products.

The increase in blood pressure and heart rate is then followed by a modest hypotensive effect — a decrease in blood pressure.

Hemp-derived CBD oil usually has less than 0.3% and thus can’t induce such effects. Other than the aforementioned drug interactions, CBD oil comes with a few mild side effects such as the dry mouth and appetite suppression.

What’s the Best CBD Oil Dosage for High Blood Pressure?

If you’re looking for a one-size-fits-all dosage, you’ll be deeply disappointed because dosing CBD depends on many different factors.

The list includes your age, weight, metabolism, prior experience with CBD, and the severity of your symptoms.

Experts recommend starting with 1–6 mg of CBD for every 10 pounds of body weight. If you’ve never taken CBD before, it’s best to start at the lowest point and slowly work your way up to the effective dosage.

Depending on the route of administration, it may take anywhere from 5 to 90 minutes for the effects to take hold.

Summarizing the Potential Effects of CBD Oil on Blood Pressure

Statistics are merciless for modern society when it comes to hypertension. The fact that we’re always rushing from A to B, spend the majority of our time sitting in one place, and consume too much processed food results in more people developing hypertension each year.

Aside from introducing obvious changes to your lifestyles, such as eating nutritious food, exercising a lot, and abstaining from alcohol and cigarettes, you may incorporate CBD oil into your regime for a significant improvement in your quality of life.

The latest research indicates that CBD is capable of lowering blood pressure on a few different levels, although more studies are needed to make conclusive claims in this subject. If you’re considering taking CBD oil for high blood pressure, make sure to talk about it with your doctor to determine if CBD products are right for you.

Do you use CBD oil for high blood pressure?

References:

  1. Linares, I.M., Zuardi, A.W., Pereira, L.C., Queiroz, R.H., Guimaraes, F.S. & Crippa, J.A. (2019). Cannabidiol Presents an Inverted U-shaped Dose-response Curve in a Stimulated Public Speaking Test. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 41(1).
  2. Jadoon, K.A., Tan, G.D., & O’Sullivan, S.E. (2017). A Single Dose of Cannabidiol Reduces Blood Pressure in Healthy Volunteers in a Randomized Crossover Study. Research Scholars Program in Hematology/Oncology, 2(12).
  3. Stanley, C.P., Hind, W.H., O’Sullivan S.E. (2012). Is the Cardiovascular System a Therapeutic Target for Cannabidiol? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(2).
Nina Julia

Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.

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